Investing in the optimal measures for improving the energy efficiency of urban street lighting systems has become strategic for the economic, technological and social development of cities. The decision-making process for the selection of the optimal set of interventions is not so straightforward. Several criticalities-such as difficulties getting access to credit for companies involved in street lighting systems refurbishment, budget constraints of municipalities, and unawareness of the actual energy and economic performance after a retrofitting intervention-require a decision-making approach that supports the city energy manager in selecting the optimal street lighting energy efficiency retrofitting solution while looking not only based on the available budget, but also based on the future savings in energy expenditures. In this context, the purpose of our research is to develop an effective decision-making model supporting the optimal multi-period planning of the street lighting energy efficiency retrofitting, which proves to be more effective and beneficial than the classical single-period approach and has never before been applied to the considered public lighting system context. The proposed methodology is applied to a real street lighting system in the city of Bari, Italy, showing the energy savings and financial benefit obtained through the proposed method. Numerical experiments are used to investigate and quantify the effects of using a multi-period planning approach instead of a single-period approach.
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