Next Article in Journal
Red Light Variation an Effective Alternative to Regulate Biomass and Lipid Profiles in Phaeodactylum tricornutum
Next Article in Special Issue
Equilibrium Study, Modeling and Optimization of Model Drug Adsorption Process by Sunflower Seed Shells
Previous Article in Journal
Deep Inorganic Fraction Characterization of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in an Industrial Area Located in Central Italy by Means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Growing Biofuel Feedstocks in Copper-Contaminated Soils of a Former Superfund Site
Article

Effect of Microwave Radiation on Regeneration of a Granulated Micelle–Clay Complex after Adsorption of Bacteria

1
Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts & Sciences, Kocaeli University, 41380 Umuttepe-Kocaeli, Turkey
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts & Sciences, Kocaeli University, 41380 Umuttepe-Kocaeli, Turkey
3
The R.H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel
4
Department of Natural Sciences, Mbeya University of Science and Technology, PO Box 131, Mbeya, Tanzania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2530; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072530
Received: 16 February 2020 / Revised: 2 April 2020 / Accepted: 3 April 2020 / Published: 7 April 2020
Granulated micelle–clay complexes including the organic cation octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA) were shown to be efficient in removal of total bacteria count (TBC) from water. Microwave (MW) heating of granules to restore bacterial removal was investigated. Drying of granules by MW required 20-fold less energy than by conventional heating. When water content of granules approached 10%, or less, their heating period by MW had to be below 1 min, e.g., 30 s, and less, in order to avoid ignition and irreversible structural changes. Structural and thermal properties of MW heated samples were studied by FT-IR spectra and thermo gravimetric analyses (TGA). Inactivation of bacteria in water was more efficient by MW than by conventional oven, or by electric plate. For elimination of bacteria from water, MW heating was at least five-fold more efficient than by conventional heating. The results have established an adequate regeneration procedure by MW heating at durations depending on the remaining percentage of water associated with the granules. Tests of first and second regenerations by MW heating, and HCl washing of columns, were carried out. It was concluded that MW treatment may be chosen for optimal regeneration of the granulated micelle–clay complex as an efficient and low-cost procedure. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial removal; granulated micelle–clay; filter regeneration by microwave bacterial removal; granulated micelle–clay; filter regeneration by microwave
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kaya, A.U.; Güner, S.; Ryskin, M.; Lameck, A.S.; Benitez, A.R.; Shuali, U.; Nir, S. Effect of Microwave Radiation on Regeneration of a Granulated Micelle–Clay Complex after Adsorption of Bacteria. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 2530. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072530

AMA Style

Kaya AU, Güner S, Ryskin M, Lameck AS, Benitez AR, Shuali U, Nir S. Effect of Microwave Radiation on Regeneration of a Granulated Micelle–Clay Complex after Adsorption of Bacteria. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(7):2530. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072530

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kaya, A. U., Selahaddin Güner, Marklen Ryskin, Azaria S. Lameck, Ana R. Benitez, Uri Shuali, and Shlomo Nir. 2020. "Effect of Microwave Radiation on Regeneration of a Granulated Micelle–Clay Complex after Adsorption of Bacteria" Applied Sciences 10, no. 7: 2530. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072530

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop