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Open AccessArticle

Carbon Dioxide Uptake by Mortars and Concretes Made with Portuguese Cements

1
Spanish Institute of Cement and its Applications (IECA), C/José Abascal, 53, 28003 Madrid, Spain
2
CIMNE—MADRID (UPC), Pº General Martínez Campos, 41, 9º, 28010 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Geological and Mines Engineering, Mine and Energy Engineering School, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), C/Ríos Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid, Spain
4
Oficemen, C/José Abascal, 53, 28003 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020646
Received: 16 December 2019 / Revised: 9 January 2020 / Accepted: 14 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Utilization)
As the cement industry continues to address its role in the climate crisis, Portugal’s cement industry has started to calculate its net CO2 emissions to become an entirely carbon neutral sector. These emissions are calculated by simply subtracting the total CO2 uptake due to mortar and concrete carbonation from the total CO2 that is emitted during the calcination process (clinker production). However, the procedures given in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventories to report GHG emissions do not contain any element that would grant this calculation method the status of an internationally recognized procedure. Therefore, some climate models are not accurate because they do not account for the carbon dioxide uptake due to concrete and mortar carbonation, as is evidenced in this paper. Climate models have improved since the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), but they can further improve by implementing carbon dioxide uptake by cement-based materials. In the present paper, a quick and easy method of evaluating net CO2 emissions is utilized (simplified method) along with an advanced method. Portuguese net CO2 emissions of the cement produced from 2005 to 2015 were calculated while taking carbon dioxide uptake during the service-life and end-of-life and secondary usage stages into account. Following the simplified method, 8.7 million tons of carbon dioxide were found to be uptake by mortars and concretes made with Portuguese cement over the ten-year period, in which 37.8 million tons were released due to the calcination process. In addition, an advanced method has been used to estimate the carbon dioxide uptake, which provided only slightly higher results than that of the simplified method (9.1 million tons). View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; climate models; carbon dioxide uptake; carbonation; CO2 capture and utilization; cement industry; sustainability climate change; climate models; carbon dioxide uptake; carbonation; CO2 capture and utilization; cement industry; sustainability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sanjuán, M.Á.; Andrade, C.; Mora, P.; Zaragoza, A. Carbon Dioxide Uptake by Mortars and Concretes Made with Portuguese Cements. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 646.

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