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Open AccessArticle

Contrasted Epidemiological Patterns of West Nile Virus Lineages 1 and 2 Infections in France from 2015 to 2019

1
UMR 1161 Virology, ANSES, INRAE, ENVA, ANSES Animal Health Laboratory, EURL for Equine Diseases, 94704 Maisons-Alfort, France
2
National Reference Laboratory for Arboviruses, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, 13010 Marseille, France
3
Unité des Virus Emergents (UVE: Aix Marseille Univ, IRD 190, INSERM 1207, IHU Méditerranée Infection), 13385 Marseille, France
4
Regional Office Paca-Corse, Santé Publique France, 13331 Marseille, France
5
ANSES Ploufragan-Plouzane-Niort, Viral Genetics and Biosecurity Unit, 22440 Ploufragan, France
6
ANSES Animal Health Laboratory, PhEED Unit, Dozulé site, F-14430 Goustranville, France
7
EID Méditerranée, 34184 Montpellier, France
8
Epidemiology Unit, Paris-Est University, ANSES Animal Health Laboratory, 94704 Maisons-Alfort, France
9
Office Français de la Biodiversité, Unité Sanitaire de la Faune, 01330 Birieux, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Pathogens 2020, 9(11), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110908
Received: 5 October 2020 / Revised: 27 October 2020 / Accepted: 28 October 2020 / Published: 30 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus Infection)
Since 2015, annual West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks of varying intensities have been reported in France. Recent intensification of enzootic WNV circulation was observed in the South of France with most horse cases detected in 2015 (n = 49), 2018 (n = 13), and 2019 (n = 13). A WNV lineage 1 strain was isolated from a horse suffering from West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) during the 2015 episode in the Camargue area. A breaking point in WNV epidemiology was achieved in 2018, when WNV lineage 2 emerged in Southeastern areas. This virus most probably originated from WNV spread from Northern Italy and caused WNND in humans and the death of diurnal raptors. WNV lineage 2 emergence was associated with the most important human WNV epidemics identified so far in France (n = 26, including seven WNND cases and two infections in blood and organ donors). Two other major findings were the detection of WNV in areas with no or limited history of WNV circulation (Alpes-Maritimes in 2018, Corsica in 2018–2019, and Var in 2019) and distinct spatial distribution of human and horse WNV cases. These new data reinforce the necessity to enhance French WNV surveillance to better anticipate future WNV epidemics and epizootics and to improve the safety of blood and organ donations. View Full-Text
Keywords: arbovirus; emerging infectious diseases; zoonotic; West Nile; lineages 1 and 2; France arbovirus; emerging infectious diseases; zoonotic; West Nile; lineages 1 and 2; France
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MDPI and ACS Style

Beck, C.; Leparc Goffart, I.; Franke, F.; Gonzalez, G.; Dumarest, M.; Lowenski, S.; Blanchard, Y.; Lucas, P.; Lamballerie, X.d.; Grard, G.; Durand, G.A.; Zientara, S.; Tapprest, J.; L’Ambert, G.; Durand, B.; Desvaux, S.; Lecollinet, S. Contrasted Epidemiological Patterns of West Nile Virus Lineages 1 and 2 Infections in France from 2015 to 2019. Pathogens 2020, 9, 908. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110908

AMA Style

Beck C, Leparc Goffart I, Franke F, Gonzalez G, Dumarest M, Lowenski S, Blanchard Y, Lucas P, Lamballerie Xd, Grard G, Durand GA, Zientara S, Tapprest J, L’Ambert G, Durand B, Desvaux S, Lecollinet S. Contrasted Epidemiological Patterns of West Nile Virus Lineages 1 and 2 Infections in France from 2015 to 2019. Pathogens. 2020; 9(11):908. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110908

Chicago/Turabian Style

Beck, Cécile; Leparc Goffart, Isabelle; Franke, Florian; Gonzalez, Gaelle; Dumarest, Marine; Lowenski, Steeve; Blanchard, Yannick; Lucas, Pierrick; Lamballerie, Xavier d.; Grard, Gilda; Durand, Guillaume A.; Zientara, Stéphan; Tapprest, Jackie; L’Ambert, Grégory; Durand, Benoit; Desvaux, Stéphanie; Lecollinet, Sylvie. 2020. "Contrasted Epidemiological Patterns of West Nile Virus Lineages 1 and 2 Infections in France from 2015 to 2019" Pathogens 9, no. 11: 908. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110908

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