The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of parasitic infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We conducted a systematic review of literature records on post-transplant parasitic infections, published from 1996 to 2016 and available on PubMed database, focusing only on parasitic infections acquired after SOT. The methods and findings of the present review have been presented based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) checklist. From data published in the literature, the real burden of parasitic infections among SOT recipients cannot really be estimated. Nevertheless, publications on the matter are on the increase, probably due to more than one reason: (i) the increasing number of patients transplanted and then treated with immunosuppressive agents; (ii) the “population shift” resulting from immigration and travels to endemic areas, and (iii) the increased attention directed to diagnosis/notification/publication of cases. Considering parasitic infections as emerging and potentially serious in their evolution, additional strategies for the prevention, careful screening and follow-up, with a high level of awareness, identification, and pre-emptive therapy are needed in transplant recipients.
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