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Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7010015

Antifungal Activity of Commercial Essential Oils and Biocides against Candida Albicans

1
School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
2
School of Research, Enterprise and Innovation, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
3
School of Dentistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF14 4XY, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Virulence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata)
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Abstract

Management of oral candidosis, most frequently caused by Candida albicans, is limited due to the relatively low number of antifungal drugs and the emergence of antifungal tolerance. In this study, the antifungal activity of a range of commercial essential oils, two terpenes, chlorhexidine and triclosan was evaluated against C. albicans in planktonic and biofilm form. In addition, cytotoxicity of the most promising compounds was assessed using murine fibroblasts and expressed as half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50). Antifungal activity was determined using a broth microdilution assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was established against planktonic cells cultured in a range of concentrations of the test agents. The minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) was determined by measuring re-growth of cells after pre-formed biofilm was treated for 24 h with the test agents. All tested commercial essential oils demonstrated anticandidal activity (MICs from 0.06% (v/v) to 0.4% (v/v)) against planktonic cultures, with a noticeable increase in resistance exhibited by biofilms (MBECs > 1.5% (v/v)). The IC50s of the commercial essential oils were lower than the MICs, while a one hour application of chlorhexidine was not cytotoxic at concentrations lower than the MIC. In conclusion, the tested commercial essential oils exhibit potential as therapeutic agents against C. albicans, although host cell cytotoxicity is a consideration when developing these new treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida albicans; oral candidosis; commercial essential oils; biocides; antifungal activity; minimum inhibitory concentration; minimal biofilm eradication concentration; cytotoxicity Candida albicans; oral candidosis; commercial essential oils; biocides; antifungal activity; minimum inhibitory concentration; minimal biofilm eradication concentration; cytotoxicity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Serra, E.; Hidalgo-Bastida, L.A.; Verran, J.; Williams, D.; Malic, S. Antifungal Activity of Commercial Essential Oils and Biocides against Candida Albicans. Pathogens 2018, 7, 15.

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