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Open AccessArticle

Horizontal Transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae in Fruit Flies and Effect of Fungal Infection on Egg Laying and Fertility

1
Crop Protection Division, Tobacco Research Board, PO Box 1909, Harare, Zimbabwe
2
International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), PO Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2013, 4(2), 206-216; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects4020206
Received: 28 March 2013 / Revised: 27 April 2013 / Accepted: 2 May 2013 / Published: 29 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Pathology)
Fly-to-fly transmission of conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and the effect of fungal infection on the reproductive potential of females surviving infection were investigated in three fruit fly species, Ceratitis cosyra, C. fasciventris, and C. capitata. The number of conidia picked up by a single fruit fly was determined in C. cosyra. The initial uptake (Day 0) of conidia by a single fly was approx. 1.1 × 106 conidia after exposure to the treated substrate. However, the number of conidia dropped from 7.2 × 105 to 4.1 × 105 conidia after 2 and 8 h post-exposure, respectively. The number of conidia picked up by a single fungus-treated fly (“donor”) varied between 3.8 × 105 and 1.0 × 106 in the three fruit fly species, resulting in 100% mortality 5–6 days post-exposure. When fungus-free flies of both sexes (“recipient” flies) were allowed to mate with “donor” flies, the number of conidia picked up by a single fly varied between 1.0 × 105 and 2.5 × 105, resulting in a mortality of 83–100% in C. capitata, 72–85% in C. cosyra and 71–93% in C. fasciventris 10–15 days post-inoculation. There was an effect of fungal infection on female egg laying in the three species of fruit flies as control flies laid more eggs than fungus-treated females. The percentage reduction in fecundity in flies infected with M. anisopliae was 82, 73 and 37% in C. capitata, C. fasciventris and C. cosyra, respectively. The results are discussed with regard to application in autodissemination techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ceratitis capitata; C. fasciventris; C. cosyra; fruit fly; Metarhizium anisopliae; horizontal transmission; fungal infection; egg laying; fertility Ceratitis capitata; C. fasciventris; C. cosyra; fruit fly; Metarhizium anisopliae; horizontal transmission; fungal infection; egg laying; fertility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dimbi, S.; Maniania, N.K.; Ekesi, S. Horizontal Transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae in Fruit Flies and Effect of Fungal Infection on Egg Laying and Fertility. Insects 2013, 4, 206-216. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects4020206

AMA Style

Dimbi S, Maniania NK, Ekesi S. Horizontal Transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae in Fruit Flies and Effect of Fungal Infection on Egg Laying and Fertility. Insects. 2013; 4(2):206-216. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects4020206

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dimbi, Susan; Maniania, Nguya K.; Ekesi, Sunday. 2013. "Horizontal Transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae in Fruit Flies and Effect of Fungal Infection on Egg Laying and Fertility" Insects 4, no. 2: 206-216. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects4020206

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