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Minerals 2019, 9(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020094

Carbon Sources and the Graphitization of Carbonaceous Matter in Precambrian Rocks of the Keivy Terrane (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

1
Geological Institute, Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, 14, Fersmana Street, 184209 Apatity, Russia
2
Institute of Earth Sciences, Saint-Petersburg State University, 7/9, Universitetskaya Emb., 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia
3
Institute for the History of Material Culture, Russian Academy of Sciences, 18, Dvortsovaya Emb., 191186 St.-Petersburg, Russia
4
Resource Center for Geo-Environmental Research and Modeling (GEOMODEL), Saint-Petersburg State University, 1, Ulyanovskaya Street, 198504 St. Petersburg, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy of Natural Graphite)
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Abstract

The Precambrian rocks of the Keivy Terrane reveal five types of carbonaceous matter (CM): Fine-grained, flaky, nest, vein, and spherulitic. These types differ in their distribution character, carbon isotope composition, and graphitization temperatures calculated by the Raman spectra of carbonaceous material (RSCM) geothermometry. Supracrustal rocks of the Keivy Terrane contain extremely isotopically light (δ13CPDB = –43 ± 3‰) carbon. Presumably, its source was a methane–aqueous fluid. According to temperature calculations, this carbon matter and the host strata underwent at least two stages of metamorphism in the west of the Keivy Terrane and one stage in the east. The CM isotope signatures of several samples of kyanite schists (δ13CPDB = –33 ± 5‰) are close to those of oils and oil source rocks, and they indicate an additional carbon reservoir. Thus, in the Keivy territory, an oil-and-gas bearing basin has existed. Heavy carbon (δ13CPDB = −8 ± 3‰) precipitated from an aqueous CO2-rich fluid is derived from either the lower crust or the mantle. This fluid probably migrated from the Keivy alkaline granites into the surrounding rocks previously enriched with “methanogenic” carbon. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphitization; carbon isotopes; RSCM geothermometry; polyphase metamorphism; alkaline granites; Precambrian; Kola Peninsula; graphite graphitization; carbon isotopes; RSCM geothermometry; polyphase metamorphism; alkaline granites; Precambrian; Kola Peninsula; graphite
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Fomina, E.; Kozlov, E.; Lokhov, K.; Lokhova, O.; Bocharov, V. Carbon Sources and the Graphitization of Carbonaceous Matter in Precambrian Rocks of the Keivy Terrane (Kola Peninsula, Russia). Minerals 2019, 9, 94.

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