Access to Landscape Finance for Small-Scale Producers and Local Communities: A Literature Review
1.1. The Challenges of Financing Small-Scale Producers, Community-Based Enterprises, and MSMEs
1.2. Objectives and Organization of the Review
- What are the challenges for inclusive integrated landscape finance as a path to resilient landscapes?
- What innovations are being used to address those challenges?
- What can be learned from successful innovations and how can these lessons be applied in the design and assessment of mechanisms for landscape finance?
2. Integrated Landscape Finance
- Developing a strategy to meet the long-term vision of the landscape partnership’
- Defining prospective projects that support the strategy (i.e., a set of assets and enabling investments that together can transform the whole landscape);
- Designing or incubating businesses/projects or scaling key landscape investments;
- Identifying or designing finance mechanisms to support the portfolio of investments and projects and components of them;
- Securing financial resources for the landscape investment portfolio that contribute to the transformation strategy.
- Geographic focus. Priority was given to publications that focused on the Global South. Studies carried out in other landscapes could be included in the ILR if their findings were relevant to tropical landscapes;
- Date of publication. Only studies published from 2010 onwards were considered. Exceptions could be made if the study was relevant for the ILR;
- Language. Publications had to be in English, French, or Spanish;
- Publication type. We included peer-reviewed journal articles, peer-reviewed book chapters, working/discussion papers, reports, policy briefs/ notes, and project notes.
- Topic assessed and scale of analysis. We excluded all publications that focused on finance for renewable energies, transportation, cities, and infrastructure. Scientific papers concerning finance at the household or individual level were excluded as well, as we were interested in exploring finance at the landscape scale;
- General study details (i.e., author(s), title, year of publication, academic journal, and database);
- Study methodology (i.e., database, publication type, data collection type, sample size, data analysis, robustness of methodology, geographic focus, country, case study, general focus, specific focus on landscape, specific focus on finance);
- Challenges for and factors in success (i.e., governance and institutions hampering positive outcomes, contextual factors hampering positive outcomes, any other challenges, trade-offs, specific financial gaps, governance and institutions fostering positive outcomes, contextual factors fostering positive outcomes, any other enabling factors, and synergies);
- Quality assessment. The quality of the reporting was evaluated based on a quality assessment form inspired by Nyambe et al.  (Table 2. The assessment was based on the following indicators: clarity of research questions/hypothesis/study aim; clarity of data collection methods; clarity of sampling plan; clarity of sampling size; clarity of analysis method; clarity of conclusions; clarity of limitations; citations; and ability to cross-reference. Each quality indicator allowed for a score from 0 to 2, except ability to cross-reference, which allowed a score from 0 to 1.
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Characteristics of Literature Reviewed
4.2. Types of Challenges
|Challenges||Authors||No. of Mentions|
|Recipients of finance||A. Product characteristics||[9,15,23,24,27,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43]||20|
|B. Livelihood assets||[9,15,23,27,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,44,45]||18|
|Finance providers||C. Knowledge of agriculture and forestry sectors and of landscape finance||[9,27,33,36,42,43]||6|
|D. Scale, costs of services||[9,15,23,24,26,29,30,31,32,34,36,41,46]||13|
|E. Transparency, trust, governance||[9,15,24,26,27,28,29,30,32,33,34,35,37,38,40,43,45,47]||18|
|Cross-cutting—both finance recipients and providers||F. Production, climate, price, and policy risks||[9,24,27,29,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,42,43,46,47]||15|
|G. Lack of information, communication, roads||[9,23,27,29,30,31,32,34,39,41,42,44,45]||14|
|H. Other benefits, policies, and regulations||[9,15,23,24,26,27,28,29,30,31,35,37,40,45,46,47]||16|
4.2.1. Main Challenges for Recipients
4.2.2. Main Challenges for the Finance Providers
4.2.3. Cross-Cutting Challenges
4.3. Overcoming the Challenges in Accessing Integrated Landscape Finance
4.3.1. Inclusive Landscape Governance and Local Stakeholder Collaboration
4.3.2. Strengthening the Financial Literacy of MSMEs
4.3.3. Access to Finance Technology and Services
4.3.4. Facilities and Mechanisms for Inclusive Integrated Landscape Finance
5. Towards Inclusive Finance for Integrated Landscape Management
5.1. Institutional Development for Inclusive Landscape Finance
- CSOs that build capacities in financial literacy, business acumen, and technical issues related to production and market access;
- Local financial institutions that develop locally appropriate financial instruments;
- Fund managers who translate the needs of the MSMEs into investible projects and design financial instruments through which public and private investors can invest in them;
- Landscape finance support service providers who can help connect MSMEs with FPs, coordinate and aggregate projects for synergies to meet landscape objectives, and incubate inclusive green businesses;
- In some cases, knowledge platforms through which fund managers can access investors and work with organizations that can provide the technical knowledge needed by local CSOs.
5.2. Enhancing the Landscape Finance Framework to Explicitly Address Inclusion
5.3. Implementing the Framework
6.1. Challenges and Innovations in Addressing Them
6.2. Lessons Learned
- How should facilities for inclusive integrated landscape finance be structured, and what are successful strategies to make them relate to local inclusive governance mechanisms?
- What actors need to be involved to be able to implement inclusive integrated landscape finance, and how should they relate to each other?
- Who should pay for improvements in the enabling conditions that facilitate the involvement of local actors (e.g., strengthening capacities, building trust)? Will such payments ensure future integrated investments or do they favor only those involved in a particular agrocommodity value chain?
- How can inclusiveness, as well as scale, impact, and diversity of investments, be achieved in landscapes with different sizes and mixes of stakeholders?
- What combinations of financial products best align with local circumstances to achieve various types of non-financial benefits, including health, education, and ecosystem services?
- Do inclusive integrated finance facilities lead to more sustainable landscapes (e.g., low or negative greenhouse gas emissions, maintenance or enhancement of biodiversity and of locally essential ecosystem services, contributions to income and well-being)? How do we measure this in a transparent way that is understandable to all actors?
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Framework Components||Guiding Questions|
|Inclusive landscape governance|
|Financial literacy of MSMEs|
|Access to finance technologies and services|
|Facilities and mechanisms for inclusive integrated landscape finance|
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Louman, B.; Girolami, E.D.; Shames, S.; Primo, L.G.; Gitz, V.; Scherr, S.J.; Meybeck, A.; Brady, M. Access to Landscape Finance for Small-Scale Producers and Local Communities: A Literature Review. Land 2022, 11, 1444. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11091444
Louman B, Girolami ED, Shames S, Primo LG, Gitz V, Scherr SJ, Meybeck A, Brady M. Access to Landscape Finance for Small-Scale Producers and Local Communities: A Literature Review. Land. 2022; 11(9):1444. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11091444Chicago/Turabian Style
Louman, Bas, Erica Di Girolami, Seth Shames, Luis Gomes Primo, Vincent Gitz, Sara J. Scherr, Alexandre Meybeck, and Michael Brady. 2022. "Access to Landscape Finance for Small-Scale Producers and Local Communities: A Literature Review" Land 11, no. 9: 1444. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11091444