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Water 2017, 9(9), 633;

BMP Optimization to Improve the Economic Viability of Farms in the Upper Watershed of Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China

Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy, Ministry of Environmental Protection, P.R. China, Beijing 100029, China
College of Resources, Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
National Marine Hazard Mitigation Service, Beijing 100194, China
Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, 115 Plant Sciences Building, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Water Policy Collection)
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Best management practices (BMPs) are being implemented to reduce non-point sources pollution in China and worldwide. There are many types of agricultural BMPs, but their effectiveness differs from farm to farm, depending on where they are applied, how they are applied, and how they are impacted by weather. Two farms (village Nan Wayao, VNWY and village Liu Jianfang, VLJF) with differing farm systems (crop-based mixed farm and dairy-based farms) located in the upper watershed of Miyun reservoir, Beijing, China were selected. We used the Integrated Farming System Model (IFSM) based on these two farms information to estimate total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) loss from 2000 to 2014, to identify (1) causes of farm nutrient imbalances, (2) key factors causing the imbalances, and (3) viable BMPs to reduce source and TN runoff at the farm scale. Results indicated that these farms had TP losses ranging from 8.2 to 160 kg/ha/year and TN losses from 73.7 to 1391.6 kg/ha/year. Using IFSM, physical (i.e., soil bulk density, available water content, and soil-P) and economic (i.e., diesel and farm loan interest rates) factors are more influential in determining nutrient loss from VNWY than VLJF. Rainfall patterns had a little effect on nutrient use and loss on the dairy farm in VLJF. Changes in available water content and soil bulk density had greater impact on the return for VNWY than VLJF, while changes in loan interest rates were more influential on VLJF. Maximum reductions in nutrient loss were obtained with implementation of the BMPs conservation tillage, reduced fertilizer and manure applications, buffer strips, and storage of poultry manure. View Full-Text
Keywords: best management practices; IFSM model; typical farms; nonpoint source pollution best management practices; IFSM model; typical farms; nonpoint source pollution

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Geng, R.; Yin, P.; Gong, Q.; Wang, X.; Sharpley, A.N. BMP Optimization to Improve the Economic Viability of Farms in the Upper Watershed of Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China. Water 2017, 9, 633.

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