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Water 2017, 9(8), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080583

A Review of Phosphorus Removal Structures: How to Assess and Compare Their Performance

1
USDA Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2
Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
3
Luonnonvarakeskus (LUKE)—Natural Resources Institute Finland, Planta, 31600 Jokioinen, Finland
4
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1871 Frederiksberg, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additives in Stormwater Filters for Enhanced Pollutant Removal)
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Abstract

Controlling dissolved phosphorus (P) losses to surface waters is challenging as most conservation practices are only effective at preventing particulate P losses. As a result, P removal structures were developed to filter dissolved P from drainage water before reaching a water body. While many P removal structures with different P sorption materials (PSMs) have been constructed over the past two decades, there remains a need to evaluate their performances and compare on a normalized basis. The purpose of this review was to compile performance data of pilot and field-scale P removal structures and present techniques for normalization and comparison. Over 40 studies were normalized by expressing cumulative P removal as a function of cumulative P loading to the contained PSM. Results were further analyzed as a function of retention time (RT), inflow P concentration, and type of PSM. Structures treating wastewater were generally more efficient than non-point drainage water due to higher RT and inflow P concentrations. For Ca-rich PSMs, including slag, increased RT allowed for greater P removal. Among structures with low RT and inflow P concentrations common to non-point drainage, Fe-based materials had an overall higher cumulative removal efficiency compared to non-slag and slag materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphorus; phosphorus removal structures; water quality; phosphorus sorption materials; phosphorus removal; best management practices; legacy phosphorus; urban stormwater phosphorus; phosphorus removal structures; water quality; phosphorus sorption materials; phosphorus removal; best management practices; legacy phosphorus; urban stormwater
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Penn, C.; Chagas, I.; Klimeski, A.; Lyngsie, G. A Review of Phosphorus Removal Structures: How to Assess and Compare Their Performance. Water 2017, 9, 583.

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