A Review on Cadmium and Lead Contamination: Sources, Fate, Mechanism, Health Effects and Remediation Methods
- The source of cadmium and lead in soil and food plants.
- The accumulation mechanism and fate of cadmium and lead in soil and plant systems.
- The human health risks resulting from cadmium and lead accumulation and exposure.
- The possible remediation technologies.
2. Methods and Scope of Study
3. Sources of Cadmium and Lead in Both Soil and Plants
|Plants||Soil||Origin of Cd/Pb in That Region||Summary and Main Finding||Reference|
|Composite soil from surface and subsoil layer||Estuarine floodplain pollution (human factors)||The study revealed the anthropogenic source of heavy metals in the surface soil, and it was found that heavy metals can be mobilised by root exudates and become phyto-available, as shown by the increased plant uptake of HMs due to their non-soluble nature.|||
|Rice, Chinese cabbage, Spinach, Cowpea||Paddy fields, vegetable field, dumping site, burning site, and acid leaching site||Abandoned e-waste recycling site||The study showed that pond water was utilized for irrigation, crops on agricultural fields can be polluted, which would have a negative impact on human health after being consumed. Aquatic life in the pond had become highly acidified and polluted with heavy metals due to previous recycling activities.|||
Shanghai green cabbage
|Agriculture soils and road dust||Coal-fired plants,|
Stationary industrial emissions, Municipal waste incineration emissions.
|The finding of this study highlighted that the amount of heavy metal pollution varies with metal species, location, and environmental medium.|||
|Woody, shrubby, and herbaceous plants species||Non-farmland soil (Pb smelter)||Heavy metals emissions from Pb smelter||The finding showed that plants with lower BCF values may be able to be reproduced and seeded in polluted areas, which might minimise heavy metal build-up in the food chain.|||
|Rice grain, corn kernels, and vegetables||Soil (rhizosphere part)||Smelting-mining.|
Vehicle emissions from diesel fuels.
Atmospheric dust fall.
|The study revealed that the amounts of HMs found in the soil-dust-fall plant system in the investigated area varied depending on the metal type and the environment.|
Compared to corn kernels, rice grains have a greater potential to enrich HMs.
|(Wheat, rice, maize) grains, mustard seeds||Soil from agriculture fields||Thermal power plant (fly ash deposition).|
|An investigation of HMs concentration in crop fields near to a thermal power plant; the final finding shows that HMs in that area cause a non-cancer health risk to the residents.|||
|Brown rice||Soil near three mine areas||Nonferrous metal industry|
Mining and smelting
|The investigation revealed the hyperaccumulation tendency of HMs in rice grains particularly in mining areas; rice has been identified as a major source of heavy metal exposure.|||
|-||Soil from different land use (aquacultural pond, barren land, built-up land, dry land, inland halophyte, intertidal flats, open water, reed marsh and rice paddy)||Industrial and agricultural wastewater discharge, domestic sewage discharge, atmospheric deposition.||As a result of these findings, heavy metal concentrations in soil and sediment of a long-term reclaimed region might be affected by land-use intensity differences. It was shown that soil characteristics such as soil organic carbon and grain size had a significant impact on the dispersion of heavy metals.|||
|Rice grain (Oryza sativa L.)||Agricultural soil/agrochemicals||Agrochemicals||The finding demonstrated the correlation between cadmium concentration and the soil pH when the increased level of cadmium is related to the decreased soil pH. Furthermore, some traditional cultivars, including Pachcha Perumal, consistently shown very high resistance to cadmium absorption in both seasons. When compared to other farmed types, the Madathawalu and Kuruluthuda cultivars were relatively resistant.|||
|-||Chinese Natural ecosystems (agricultural, aquatic, desert, forest, grassland, Karst ecosystems)||Atmospheric deposition from oil and coal consumption.|
Number of vehicles
|In this study, the wet deposition of lead and cadmium was shown to be positively linked to cadmium and lead soil concentration which confirms the atmospheric deposition origin of HMs in that region.|||
|-||Surface soil||Atmospheric deposition from coal combustion, chemical factories, iron and steel smelting, heavy traffic.||The results showed that cadmium air deposition fluxes were highest in a coal mining area and significantly lower in a rural area.|
Coal combustion connected to chemical and metallurgical industries was identified as the primary cause of cadmium pollution in Lianyuan city’s atmosphere.
|-||Peri-urban agricultural soils||Fertilization and atmospheric deposition||The investigation revealed that the intensive agricultural output led to the build-up of heavy metals in the soil, a reduction in soil pH, and an increase in soil organic matter content (SOM) and according to the results of the lead isotope ratio analysis IRA, input fluxes analysis (IFA), and positive matrix factorization (PMF) models, air deposition and fertilization were the primary causes of heavy metal accumulation in soils.|||
|Pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)||Soil reciprocal (designed for the experiment)||Atmospheric deposition from copper smelter||The study showed that the substantial proportion (20–85%) of cadmium, and lead discovered in the edible shoot of pakchoi near the copper smelter was caused by freshly deposited metals in the atmosphere, which also resulted in a higher health risk of pakchoi intake. These findings demonstrated that the function of freshly deposited heavy metals was critical in the risk management of heavy metal pollution in soil-vegetation systems.|||
|-||Urban road surface||Direct deposition of lead on the urban road||The results show that lead contributed to road build-up and the atmosphere by the soil along the road that has been disturbed by natural and traffic-induced wind.|
In comparison to atmospheric deposition, direct deposition is the most common route for lead to reach the roadways.
|-||Agricultural soils||Agrochemicals, atmospheric deposition and industrial emissions, sewage irrigation, leather tanning industry.||This resource-based region’s agricultural soils were extensively contaminated with lead and cadmium. The primary causes of contamination were human activities such as agriculture and sewage irrigation, as well as industrial and atmospheric pollutants.|||
|Vegetables and grains||Agricultural soils||Weathering of parent materials, phosphorus fertilizers||The overall finding showed that heavy metal contents in soil are naturally occurring and due to basaltic parent material, that forms the soil, and it increases with the increase of the weathering duration. In addition, the usage of phosphorus fertilizers may have altered the cadmium content of the soil.|||
|-||Agricultural soil||Agrochemicals and fertilization||The various accumulation patterns observed in wheat field soil revealed that the accumulation level of HMs and REEs in the soil is connected to the continuous application of fertilizers, in addition to pesticides and herbicides, over time.|||
|-||Soil from shallot fields||Long-term fertilization, pesticides, organic manure.|
|In this study, cadmium concentrations are induced by agricultural activities such as long-term applications of animal manure, insecticides, and phosphorus fertilizers. The lead concentration of the agricultural soils is thought to be controlled by natural sources such as lithogenic factors and parent materials.|||
|-||Agricultural soil||Agrochemicals, atmospheric dust, traffic density|
Fossil fuel combustion from gas and oil fields nearby, transported by dust storms.
|According to the results obtained from PERI, cadmium contributed 97.2% to the total potential ecological risk in the soils. Cadmium concentrations in soil samples above background values for continental crust and average global soils.|||
|Carrot and cabbage||Carrot and cabbage soil||Wastewater irrigation, fertilizer application||The results revealed that both the cabbage and carrots, as well as the soils, had heavy metal levels over the threshold standards specified by international organizations regulating food safety. The intensive application of fertilizers resulted a decrease in pH and organic matter production rates in soil.|||
4. Cadmium and Lead Contamination Levels in Different Types of Soil and Plant
4.1. Cadmium and Lead Contamination in the Soil Ecosystem
4.2. Cadmium and Lead Contamination in Plants
5. Fate and Accumulation Mechanisms of Cadmium and Lead in Soil-Plant System
6. Health Effects of Cadmium and Lead Exposure
7. The Remediation and Mitigation Techniques and Strategies
|Contaminant||Reagent/Plant Species Used||Main Finding and Summary||Advantages||Limitations||Reference|
|Cadmium from agricultural soil||fulvic acid-aided hydroxyapatite nanofluid.|
|The findings show that nHAP nanofluid has a high potential for removing cadmium from polluted soils, and that organic acids play a critical role in assisting the process provided proper subsurface drainage and leachate collecting systems are present on-site.||Environment friendly.|
|Doubt in separation of the nanomaterials from soil particles.|||
|Lead from agricultural soil||biodegradable chelators (N, N-dicarboxymethyl glutamic acid tetrasodium salt (GLDA), ascorbic acid and citric acid).|
|Pb removal might be considerably improved by combining GLDA with CA (citric acid) and ASC (ascorbic acid). The findings of this study imply that a GLDA-ASC combination might be a viable alternative for Pb elimination.||Permanent results|
Does not take a long time
The used chelating agents are biodegradable.
GLDA has a low ecological footprint.
Applicable for soils with high HMs contamination rates.
|Lab based experiment.|||
|Cadmium at low levels might enhance the development of S. bicolor, while S. bicolor could not accumulate cadmium at high levels. Many variables impact cadmium absorption by plants, including soil quality, plant species, soil microorganisms, and cadmium species in soil. Under cadmium stress, a high level of microbial diversity was discovered, which influenced plant growth.||High biomass yield and rapid growth.|
High tolerance to adverse environment and ability to produce bioenergy.
Effective, economic, and environment friendly method
|The S. bicolor cannot accumulate Cd in high levels.|
|Cadmium||Two ecotypes of Bidens pilosa L.|
|The net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, SOD activity, and extractable Cd content were all greater after HAE (Hanzhong ecotype of Bidens pilosa L.) treatment than after SHE (Shenyang ecotype of Bidens pilosa L.) treatment. These characteristics may be partly responsible for HAE’s increased cadmium accumulation from soil, indicating a genetic foundation for this hyperaccumulator’s enhanced tolerance and accumulation.||Cost-effective and environment friendly technology.||Small scale only.|||
|Lead||Ethylene-diamine-teraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-2Na) combined with diluted deep eutectic solvent (DES).|
|The treated soil showed no corrosion or mineralogical alterations because of the chemical washing. The washing process had no discernible effect on the mineral phase of the soil or the functional groups of CEEN. As a result, this method may be used to treat lead-contaminated soil.||Rapid and efficient remediation method.|
Environmentally friendly, non-toxic, and affordable.
|High viscosity of the reagents makes recycling the soil after remediation challenging, and a dilution of the reagents is required.|||
|Cadmium||Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.|
|The level of soil cadmium contamination and soil CEC both influenced grain amaranth growth and cadmium accumulation. The results indicated that low soil CEC is a significant limiting factor impacting the phytoremediation efficacy of grain amaranth.||Cost-effective and eco-friendly method.||Small-scale.|||
|Lead and cadmium||Extracted water from Fagopyrum esculentum and Fordiophyton faberi|
|The study showed the capacity of plant solutions in soil washing, and results revealed the ability of the prepared solutions to extract lead and cadmium from soil, where F. esculentum has shown higher extraction levels than F. faberi.||When compared to EDTA, plant washing agents perform better in terms of lowering metal hazards and mitigating the impact of washing on soil chemical characteristics.||Small-scale only.|||
|Cadmium||Biosurfactant: rhamnolipid (RL) and saponin (SP)|
|The findings indicate that using biosurfactants can help in soil remediation by corn where the results reveal that raising the biosurfactant concentration from 1 to 5 mmol kg−1 influenced the amount of Cd leached out of the soil samples.||It does not need a disposal site.|
The biosurfactants can increase the corn biomass.
The produced biomass can be used as bioenergy.
|It requires a suitable place/plant.|||
|Lead||Biochar (magnetic biochar MBC)|
|Results revealed that MBC can efficiently remediate lead contaminated soils. The key parameters influencing Pb removal effectiveness from soils were Pb sorption capacity by magnetic biochar, magnetic biochar recovery efficiency, and chemical forms of lead in soils.||Feasible approach for lead contaminated soils.||Soil type and magnetic biochar can influence the efficiency of the remediation.|||
|Lead and Cadmium||Adsorbent (bentonite)|
|Bentonite additions lowered the exchangeable proportion of cadmium and lead, the majority of which was transformed into inaccessible forms. Cadmium and lead translocation from soil to aerial portions of Oryza sativa L. was inhibited by bentonite treatments.||Short cycle, cost-effective.|
Easy to implement.
|The immobilised heavy metals can still be present in soils and may be released back into water if soil conditions alter.|||
|Lead and cadmium||Newly modified material fly ash (NA), zeolite (ZE), and fly ash (FA).|
|The use of NA and ZE lowered the concentration of accessible metal ions and reduced cadmium/lead accumulation and capability for sequestration, resulting in a decrease in the acid-exchangeable fraction of cadmium/lead and an increase in the oxidizable and residual fractions.||Can be applicable in field.|
|Secondary pollution may be caused.|
Side effects of the fly ash.
Cannot be used to remediate a mixed heavy metal pollution.
|Lead and cadmium||Thiol-modified rice straw biochar|
|These findings imply that RS (rice straw) might be a viable remediation solution for heavy metal pollution in water and soil.||Effective method for cadmium and lead remediation.||It may influence the microbial activity.|
Difficult to separate from soil after treatment.
|Cadmium||Non-magnetic silicate bonded biochar (SBC) and magnetic silicate bonded biochar (MSBC)|
|The biochar substance has magnetic characteristics and can be separated by magnetic field force, making it ideal for recycling and secondary use.||The ability to reduce cadmium bioavailability in soil.|
Good adsorption and passivation performance.
The treated soil with silicate bonded biochar helps in the plant growth.
|It requires more than one cycle.|
In-situ passivation cannot completely remove Cd from soil.
|Cadmium||Composite (biochar-supported iron phosphate nanoparticles, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose)|
|The findings of consecutive extraction techniques revealed that the decrease in Cd bioavailability in soils was caused by the change of more conveniently extractable Cd to the least accessible form. Experiments on plant development showed that the composite may prevent Cd absorption to both the belowground and above-ground parts of the plant.||The method can immobilize cadmium in soil by reducing its bio accessibility.|
Short term method.
The composite had the ability to successfully change a more bioavailable cadmium speciation into a significantly less bioavailable speciation.
It helps in promoting the plant growth.
|It may influence the soil fertility.|
It needs more field investigations.
Chemical immobilisation might not reduce heavy metal concentrations in the long-term.
|Cadmium||Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) + chelating agents (citric acid (CA), oxalic acid (OA) and ethylenediamine disuccinate (EDDS).|
|According to the findings, chelating chemicals exacerbated the negative effects of Cd combined stress on the sunflower by lowering plant biomass and limiting photosynthesis, while boosting sunflowers’ ability to absorb and transport Cd to variable degrees.||Phytoremediation potential can be increased by adding chelating agents (chelating agents can stimulate the metals uptake by plants).|
Cost-effective and eco-friendly method.
High biodegradability of the chelating agents.
Sunflower has high bioaccumulation capacity, strong stress tolerance and short growth cycle.
|Enhanced plant stress, decreasing biomass, inhibiting photosynthesis, and increasing malondialdehyde and H2O2 levels.|
Cannot be used in highly contaminated regions.
|Cadmium||Electrokinetic remediation||The cross-impact of factors affects Cd migration in soil, and effective in-situ removal of Cd from soil may be obtained by adjusting parameters appropriately.||Minimal soil disruption.|
Suitable for low permeability soil.
High removal efficiency.
|The degree of solubilization and desorption of the metal may impact the removal efficiency.|||
|Lead||Ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents with saponin (DESs)|
|This study indicates the appropriateness of employing DESs in conjunction with saponin for soil washing. The DESs and saponin worked better when used together rather than separately, showing a synergistic behaviour in which they both contribute to Pb2+ removal from soil.||Biodegradable and low-cost solvents.|
|Need further investigations.|||
|Lead||Helianthus annuus L.|
|The study revealed the ability of five varieties of Helianthus annuus L.|
to extract Pb from contaminated soil. The potential of Phule Bhaskar to accumulate Pb is larger than that of the other varieties.
(it took 60 days)
|Green technology, cost-effective.||It requires a long time for plant growth and metals uptake.|
Long life cycle.
Low removal efficiency.
|Cadmium||Cation exchange resin (CER), biochar (BC), and steel slag (SS).|
|The results illustrated that the used device with the chosen amendments (CER, BC, SS) could eliminate Cd in soil, and reduce Cd levels in rice grain as well.||Easy implementation.|
Reusable in-situ technique.
Stimulates rice development.
Improves crop photosynthesis.
Minimizes oxidative damage.
Diversifies the microbial population.
Lower rice grain HRI.
|Lead and cadmium||Statice (Limonium sinuatum (L.) Mill)|
|The study revealed that mycorrhizal plants produced more biomass at the highest Cd or Pb doses. Thus, Statice plant is a viable alternative for revegetating lead or cadmium-polluted industrial sites or urban landscapes, especially following mycorrhizal inoculation.||Plant roots have higher capability to accumulate the metals than other plant parts.||Pb and Cd could inhibit the plant growth and lead to metal stress.|||
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Organizations||Soil/Plant Types||Cd and Pb Standards||References|
|EU a||Soil||-||Cd 0.2 mg/kg|||
|Plant||Leafy vegetables, fresh herbs, celeriac, cultivated fungi||Cd 0.2 mg/kg|
|Stem vegetables, root vegetables, and potatoes||Cd 0.1 mg/kg|
|Vegetables and fruits (excluding leafy vegetables) and other products||Cd 0.05 mg/kg|
|Brassicas, leaf vegetables||Pb 0.3 mg/kg|
|Vegetables (including peeled vegetables)||Pb 0.1 mg/kg|
WHO b (2007)
|Soil||-||Cd 0.07 mg/kg,|
Pb 10 mg/kg
|Plant||-||Cd 0.2 mg/kg,|
Pb 5 mg/kg
|SEQS c||Soil||-||Cd 0.3 mg/kg|||
|AQSIQ d||Plant||Rice||Cd, Pb 0.2000 mg/kg|||
|DOE e (2009)||Soil||Residential soil||Cd 7.0 mg/kg, Pb 4.0 mg/kg|||
|Industrial soil||Cd 8.1 mg/kg, Pb 8.0 mg/kg|
|No.||Location||Cadmium/Lead Concentration Range (mg/kg)||Land Use||References|
|From Malaysian lands|
|01||Klang district, Selangor||Cd (0.77 mg/kg)|
Pb (52.73 mg/kg)
|02||(Kg. kubang and Kg. tok kambing) Kota bharu, Kelantan||Pb (7.396–11.30 mg/kg)||Soil from an agricultural area (cucumber crop)|||
|03||Selangor||Pb (24.3–37.9 mg/kg) in landfill area|
Pb (14.5–27.9 mg/kg) in residential area
Cd in landfill area (0.6–4.61 mg/kg)
Cd in agricultural area (1.3–4.99 mg/kg)
|Soil from Langat water catchment area (landfill, agricultural, industrial, residential)|||
|04||Perlis||Pb (0.4 mg/kg)|
Cd (0.98 mg/kg)
|Soil from the mango plantation area|||
|05||Ranau Valley, Ranau, Sabah||Cdmax (2.83 mg/kg)||Soil from paddy field|||
|06||Different sites from Peninsular Malaysia||Pb (0.05–0.09 mg/kg)|
Cd (7.8 × 10−4–1.9 × 10−3 mg/kg)
|Soil from Gotu Kola plantation|||
|07||Kuala Lipis, Pahang||Pb (63.5–72.5 mg/kg)||Surface soils from active and abandoned iron ore mining sites|||
|08||Kuantan Port and bukit Goh, Pahang||Pb (44.76 mg/kg)|
Cd (3.63 mg/kg) in Bukit Goh
Cd (4.61 mg/kg) in Kuantan Port
|The soil of bauxite mining area|||
|09||Perlis||Cd (0.075 mg/kg)||Soil from 5 different sites (Jejawi, Kangar, chuping, kuala perlis, Beseri)|||
|10||KKampung Sawah Sempadan, Tanjung Kanany, Selangor||Pb (6.64 mg/kg)|
Cd (6.00 × 10−2 mg/kg)
|11||Jengka, Pahang||Pb (0.03–4.60 mg/kg)|
Cd (0.01–0.32 mg/kg)
|Soil from plantation area|||
|12||Malaka and Negeri Sembilan||Pb (1.88 mg/kg)|
Cd (171.72 mg/kg)
In non-sanitary sites
|Soils from sanitary and non-sanitary sites|||
|13||Yan, Kubang Pasu, and Pendang, Kedah||Pb (0.026–1.063 mg/kg) in Pendang area|
Pb (0.023–0.858 mg/kg) in Yan area
Pb in Kubang Pasu (0.023–1.107 mg/kg)
Cd in Pendang:
Cd (0.0018–0.013 mg/kg) in Yan
Cd in Kubang Pasu: (0.001–0.152 mg/kg)
|Lands from other countries|
|14||Hunan, Southern China||Cd in soil (0.228–1.91 mg/kg)||Paddy soils|||
|15||Northeast, Central and West, South, Yangtze Delta, China||Cd 0.45 mg/kg|
Pb 25.7 mg/kg
|16||Guayas province, Ecuador||Cd (0.26 ± 0.15 mg/kg) and|
Pb (13.52 ± 8.46 mg/kg)
|17||Zhejiang Province, China||Cd 0.126 mg/kg (background concentration, before adding Cd to experimental pots)||Paddy soils|||
|18||Malopolska, Poland||Cd 0.01 to 16.9 mg/kg|
Pb 3 to 586 mg/kg
|Grassland, arable land, forest, wasteland|||
|No||Location||Cadmium/Lead Concentration Range (mg/kg)||Food Plants||References|
|In Malaysian regions|
|01||Different sites from peninsular Malaysia||Pb-roots (0.022–0.037 mg/kg)|
Pb-shoots (0.016–0.025 mg/kg)
Cd-roots (1 × 10−3–1.7 × 10−3 mg/kg)
Cd-shoots (4.1 × 10−4–9.3 × 10−4 mg/kg)
|Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica)|||
|02||Ranau Valley, Ranau, Sabah||Cd (3.92 mg/kg)||Rice grain|||
|03||Penang, Kedah and Perak||Cd-fruit vegetables (0.17–1.32 mg/kg)|
Cd-leafy vegetables (0.74–2.17 mg/kg)
Pb-fruit vegetables (0.62–1.85 mg/kg)
Pb-leafy vegetables (1.23–2.74 mg/kg) dw
|Vegetables (leaves and fruits)|||
|04||Jengka, Pahang||Pb-roots (0.16–3.37 mg/kg)|
Cd-roots (0–0.11 mg/kg)
|05||Pahang||Pb (0.79–1.46 mg/kg)||Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia)|||
|06||Jengka, Pahang||Cd (0.15–0.54 mg/kg)|
Pb (0.03–0.05 mg/kg)
Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) Amaranth
Caisim (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis).
|07||Kampung Binjiai Manis, Kampung Aman and Bachok, Kelantan||Kampung Binjiai Manis:|
Pb in eggplant (3.44 mg/kg)
Cd in Luffa (0.93 mg/kg)
Pb in Eggplant (0.82 mg/kg)
Cd in Luffa (1.12 mg/kg)
Chili (Capsium annum)
Luffa (Luffa acutangular)
|In other countries|
|08||(Devon, Cornwall, Aberdeenshire) Britain||High Cd in Spinach 0.04 mg/kg|
High Pb in blackcurrant 0.16 mg/kg
|Fruits and vegetables|||
|09||China||Cd (0.0025 to 0.2530) mg/kg|
Pb (0.0250–0.3830) mg/kg
|Rice grains (indica and japonica)|||
|10||United States (US)||Cd 3.15 mg/kg|
Pb 0.38 mg/ kg
|Products originated from cocoa beans (cocoa powder, dark chocolate, milk chocolate, and cocoa nibs).|||
|11||Zhejiang province, China||Cd 0.128 to 0.806 mg/kg||Rice cultivars|||
|12||Chile||Lettuce (Cd 0.057, Pb 0.208 mg/kg)max|
Spinach (Cd 0.247, Pb < 0.263 mg/kg)max
Chard (Cd 0.116, Pb < 0.238 mg/kg)
|Lettuce, spinach, chard|||
|Location||Trace Element||Analytical Method||Main Food Contributor to TE Exposure||Dietary Daily Intake (μg/kg/BW/day)||References|
|Italy||Cadmium||ICP-MS (7500 Agilent)||Cereals, vegetables||0.0714 μg/kg BW/day|||
|China||Cadmium||ICP-MS||Rice, vegetables||2.37–6.93 μg/kg BW/day|||
|China||Cadmium||(ICP-MS, Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA, USA)||Rice, vegetables||Adult 3.4–6.5|
Children 4.1–7.9 μg/kg BW/day
|China||Cadmium||GFAAS||Vegetables (loofah, carrot, radish, bok choy, cabbage, celery, Chinese cabbage, lettuce, mustard)||100 μg/BW kg/day|||
|China||Lead||ICP-MS||Vegetables and their products||0.0938–0.1210 μg/kg bw/day/|||
and wheat flour
|0.17 μg/kg bw/day|||
|ICP-MS||Vegetables (stem, leafy, and fruit vegetables)||0.052 µg/kg bw/day|
0.038 µg/kg bw/day
|China||Lead||GFAAS (Thermo SOLAAR model iCE3000)||Marketed vegetables||0.459 µg/kg bw/day|||
|AAS (AANALYST800, Perkin-Elmer)||Leafy vegetables||0.219 ug/kg/day|
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Bouida, L.; Rafatullah, M.; Kerrouche, A.; Qutob, M.; Alosaimi, A.M.; Alorfi, H.S.; Hussein, M.A. A Review on Cadmium and Lead Contamination: Sources, Fate, Mechanism, Health Effects and Remediation Methods. Water 2022, 14, 3432. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213432
Bouida L, Rafatullah M, Kerrouche A, Qutob M, Alosaimi AM, Alorfi HS, Hussein MA. A Review on Cadmium and Lead Contamination: Sources, Fate, Mechanism, Health Effects and Remediation Methods. Water. 2022; 14(21):3432. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213432Chicago/Turabian Style
Bouida, Leila, Mohd Rafatullah, Abdelfateh Kerrouche, Mohammad Qutob, Abeer M. Alosaimi, Hajer S. Alorfi, and Mahmoud A. Hussein. 2022. "A Review on Cadmium and Lead Contamination: Sources, Fate, Mechanism, Health Effects and Remediation Methods" Water 14, no. 21: 3432. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213432