A Framework for Sustainable Groundwater Management
2. Materials and Methods
The Framework for a Sustainable Groundwater Development Tool
3. Results and Discussion: Framework Application
3.1. Case Study 1: Framework Application for the Coastal Aquifer, India
- Seawater intrusion;
- Groundwater depletion;
- Coastal storm surge;
- Coastal erosion;
- Reduction in sand dunes and natural ecosystems;
- Inundation risk analysis;
- Coastal flooding and erosion caused by changes in current energy and wave energy, cyclones, storm surges, tidal, tsunami;
- Mangroves impacted by check dams as well as seawater/freshwater flow dynamics change;
- Wetland biodiversity destruction.
- Fishermen’s access to the beach is impacted;
- Agriculture land and drinking water quality are reduced;
- Some of the developed policies have negative impacts, e.g., reduction in coastal regulation.
3.2. Case Study 2: Dockum Aquifer in Texas, United States (US)
3.3. Case Study 3: Piedmont and Blueridge Aquifer in Georgia, US
- The automated models developed through the case study have the simple ability to be replicated by other scientists/researchers in any other watersheds of the world.
- The final product of the DRASTIC model is a geospatial map showing the groundwater contamination vulnerability with a scale of very low to very high. Thus, watershed managers would obtain management decision support for constructing any superfund site, locating any waste management project, demarcating locations for industrial waste deposition, and above all prohibiting excessive groundwater withdrawal and many more groundwater-usage-related decisions.
- The soil subsidence analysis process, developed through the developed automated geospatial model that uses historical USGS topographic maps, supported by the developed digital elevation model (DEM) and present-day light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-based DEM, would help watershed managers to dissuade stakeholders from drawing more groundwater for domestic and agricultural usages and persuading/encourage them to help conserve water through the construction of water harvesting structures and replenishing groundwater to the depleting aquifer. Thus, probably the process of soil subsidence would subside.
- Above all, the study would provide quality decision support for environmental managers, land-use planners, and other stakeholders.
3.4. Case Study 4: Floridian Aquifer in Northwest Florida, US
- Similar to the previous case study, from this study, the automated models developed through the case study have the simple ability to be replicated by other scientists/researchers in any other watersheds of the world.
- The sinkhole probability spatial map could help decision makers guide stakeholders in the mitigation of sinkhole-forming bad management practices.
- As it is already observed that groundwater fluctuation is a significant component of sinkhole formation, groundwater managers need to provide prudent decision support towards decreasing their probability of formation.
- Above all, the study would provide quality decision support for environmental managers, land-use planners, and other stakeholders.
4. Summary and Conclusions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Anandhi, A.; Karunanidhi, D.; Sankar, G.M.; Panda, S.; Kannan, N. A Framework for Sustainable Groundwater Management. Water 2022, 14, 3416. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213416
Anandhi A, Karunanidhi D, Sankar GM, Panda S, Kannan N. A Framework for Sustainable Groundwater Management. Water. 2022; 14(21):3416. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213416Chicago/Turabian Style
Anandhi, Aavudai, D. Karunanidhi, G. Muthu Sankar, Sudhanshu Panda, and Narayanan Kannan. 2022. "A Framework for Sustainable Groundwater Management" Water 14, no. 21: 3416. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213416