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Article

Assessment of the Ecological Risk from Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediment of River Surma, Bangladesh: Coupled Approach of Monte Carlo Simulation and Multi-Component Statistical Analysis

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Department of Geography and Environment, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114, Bangladesh
2
Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0115, Japan
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BRAC James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh
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Water Quality Research Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre (AECD), Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh
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Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science, Faculty of Science, Universidade de Vigo, E-32004 Ourense, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Chin H. Wu and George Arhonditsis
Water 2022, 14(2), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020180
Received: 23 November 2021 / Revised: 31 December 2021 / Accepted: 3 January 2022 / Published: 10 January 2022
River sediment can be used to measure the pollution level in natural water, as it serves as one of the vital environmental indicators. This study aims to assess heavy metal pollution namely Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Cadmium (Cd) in Surma River. Further, it compares potential ecological risk index values using Hakanson Risk Index (RI) and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) approach to evaluate the environmental risks caused by these heavy metals. in the study area. With obtained results, enrichment of individual heavy metals in the study area was found in the order of Ni > Pb > Cd > Mn > Cu > Zn. Also, variance in MCS index contributed by studied metals was in the order of Cd > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cu. None of the heavy metals, except Ni, showed moderate contamination of the sediment. Risk index values from RI and MCS provide valuable insights in the contamination profile of the river, indicating the studied river is currently under low ecological risk for the studied heavy metals. This study can be utilized to assess the susceptibility of the river sediment to heavy metal pollution near an urban core, and to have a better understanding of the contamination profile of a river. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; ecological risk; Surma River; Monte Carlo simulation; multivariate analysis; Hakanson risk index heavy metals; ecological risk; Surma River; Monte Carlo simulation; multivariate analysis; Hakanson risk index
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MDPI and ACS Style

Acharjee, A.; Ahmed, Z.; Kumar, P.; Alam, R.; Rahman, M.S.; Simal-Gandara, J. Assessment of the Ecological Risk from Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediment of River Surma, Bangladesh: Coupled Approach of Monte Carlo Simulation and Multi-Component Statistical Analysis. Water 2022, 14, 180. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020180

AMA Style

Acharjee A, Ahmed Z, Kumar P, Alam R, Rahman MS, Simal-Gandara J. Assessment of the Ecological Risk from Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediment of River Surma, Bangladesh: Coupled Approach of Monte Carlo Simulation and Multi-Component Statistical Analysis. Water. 2022; 14(2):180. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020180

Chicago/Turabian Style

Acharjee, Arup, Zia Ahmed, Pankaj Kumar, Rafiul Alam, M. S. Rahman, and Jesus Simal-Gandara. 2022. "Assessment of the Ecological Risk from Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediment of River Surma, Bangladesh: Coupled Approach of Monte Carlo Simulation and Multi-Component Statistical Analysis" Water 14, no. 2: 180. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020180

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