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Review

Application of Natural Coagulants for Pharmaceutical Removal from Water and Wastewater: A Review

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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, A’Sharqiyah University, Ibra 400, Oman
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Department of Environmental Engineering-Water Center (SUMER), Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli 41400, Turkey
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Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71524, Egypt
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Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology (FEGT), Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar 31900, Malaysia
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Department of Civil Engineering, Hasan Kalyoncu University, Gaziantep 27500, Turkey
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Faculty of Engineering, Karabuk University, Demir Campus, Karabuk 78050, Turkey
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Al-Aqsa Community Intermediate College, Al-Aqsa University, Gaza P.B.4051, Palestine
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Laura Bulgariu
Water 2022, 14(2), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020140
Received: 5 December 2021 / Revised: 2 January 2022 / Accepted: 5 January 2022 / Published: 6 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment: Current and Future Techniques)
Pharmaceutical contamination threatens both humans and the environment, and several technologies have been adapted for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The coagulation-flocculation process demonstrates a feasible solution for pharmaceutical removal. However, the chemical coagulation process has its drawbacks, such as excessive and toxic sludge production and high production cost. To overcome these shortcomings, the feasibility of natural-based coagulants, due to their biodegradability, safety, and availability, has been investigated by several researchers. This review presented the recent advances of using natural coagulants for pharmaceutical compound removal from aqueous solutions. The main mechanisms of natural coagulants for pharmaceutical removal from water and wastewater are charge neutralization and polymer bridges. Natural coagulants extracted from plants are more commonly investigated than those extracted from animals due to their affordability. Natural coagulants are competitive in terms of their performance and environmental sustainability. Developing a reliable extraction method is required, and therefore further investigation is essential to obtain a complete insight regarding the performance and the effect of environmental factors during pharmaceutical removal by natural coagulants. Finally, the indirect application of natural coagulants is an essential step for implementing green water and wastewater treatment technologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural coagulation; chemical coagulation; pharmaceuticals; Moringa oleifera; green treatment technology natural coagulation; chemical coagulation; pharmaceuticals; Moringa oleifera; green treatment technology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alazaiza, M.Y.D.; Albahnasawi, A.; Ali, G.A.M.; Bashir, M.J.K.; Nassani, D.E.; Al Maskari, T.; Amr, S.S.A.; Abujazar, M.S.S. Application of Natural Coagulants for Pharmaceutical Removal from Water and Wastewater: A Review. Water 2022, 14, 140. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020140

AMA Style

Alazaiza MYD, Albahnasawi A, Ali GAM, Bashir MJK, Nassani DE, Al Maskari T, Amr SSA, Abujazar MSS. Application of Natural Coagulants for Pharmaceutical Removal from Water and Wastewater: A Review. Water. 2022; 14(2):140. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020140

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alazaiza, Motasem Y.D., Ahmed Albahnasawi, Gomaa A.M. Ali, Mohammed J.K. Bashir, Dia E. Nassani, Tahra Al Maskari, Salem S.A. Amr, and Mohammed S.S. Abujazar. 2022. "Application of Natural Coagulants for Pharmaceutical Removal from Water and Wastewater: A Review" Water 14, no. 2: 140. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020140

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