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Article

Transition Indices of Sediment-Transport Modes on a Debris Flow Resulting from Changing Streambed Gradients

1
Department of Social Systems and Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8552, Japan
2
Wakayama Prefectural Office, Wakayama 640-8585, Japan
3
Asahi Consultant Co., Ltd., Tottori 680-0911, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Su-Chin Chen
Water 2022, 14(11), 1810; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111810
Received: 30 April 2022 / Revised: 31 May 2022 / Accepted: 31 May 2022 / Published: 4 June 2022
We conducted experiments using an experimental flume with two variable streambed gradients in the upstream and downstream parts with various debris flows, composition sizes, and supply flow rates. We investigated the transition processes of sediment transport modes along the longitudinal distances from the gradient change point using the transition mode indices, ICs¯x, Ih¯x, and IU¯x; these indices were calculated based on measurements of sediment transport concentrations, flow depths, and gravel migration velocities in the debris flow’s front in the downstream part. Using these indices, we postulated that after the debris flow passed the gradient change point, the transition of the sediment transport modes progressed by changing the measured parameters to those in the steady-state condition on the gradient of the downstream parts. In addition, these indices suggested that the gravel migration velocities in the flow front interior changed most rapidly after passing the gradient change point, and that flow depths tended to change most slowly. Finally, the indices suggested that as the debris flow material became finer and the supplied flow rates became larger, the longitudinal transition sections tended to be longer because the momentum needed to transport the material was less than the total debris flow momentum. View Full-Text
Keywords: debris flow; sediment transport mode; transition process; changing streambed gradient; sediment transport concentration; flow depth; gravel migration velocity; flume experiment debris flow; sediment transport mode; transition process; changing streambed gradient; sediment transport concentration; flow depth; gravel migration velocity; flume experiment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wada, T.; Mishima, H.; Takemura, J.; Kobayashi, K.; Miwa, H. Transition Indices of Sediment-Transport Modes on a Debris Flow Resulting from Changing Streambed Gradients. Water 2022, 14, 1810. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111810

AMA Style

Wada T, Mishima H, Takemura J, Kobayashi K, Miwa H. Transition Indices of Sediment-Transport Modes on a Debris Flow Resulting from Changing Streambed Gradients. Water. 2022; 14(11):1810. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111810

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wada, Takashi, Hirotada Mishima, Jin Takemura, Kazuki Kobayashi, and Hiroshi Miwa. 2022. "Transition Indices of Sediment-Transport Modes on a Debris Flow Resulting from Changing Streambed Gradients" Water 14, no. 11: 1810. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111810

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