Monitoring the spatio-temporal dynamics of desertification is critical for desertification control. Using the Urat front flag as the study area, Landsat remote sensing images between 2010 and 2020 were selected as data sources, along with MOD17A3H as auxiliary data. Additionally, RS and GIS theories and methods were used to establish an Albedo–NDVI feature space based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land surface albedo. The desertification difference index (DDI) was developed to investigate the dynamic change and factors contributing to desertification in the Urat front banner. The results show that: ① the Albedo–NDVI feature space method is effective and precise at extracting and classifying desertification information, which is beneficial for quantitative analysis and monitoring of desertification; ② from 2010 to 2020, the spatial distribution of desertification degree in the Urat front banner gradually decreased from south to north; ③ throughout the study period, the area of moderate desertification land increased the most, at an annual rate of 8.2%, while the area of extremely serious desertification land decreased significantly, at an annual rate of 9.2%, indicating that desertification degree improved during the study period; ④ the transformation of desertification types in Urat former banner is mainly from very severe to moderate, from severe to undeserted, and from mild to undeserted, with respective areas of 22.5045 km2
, 44.0478 km2
, and 319.2160 km2
. Over a 10-year period, the desertification restoration areas in the study area ranged from extremely serious desertification to moderate desertification, from serious desertification to non-desertification, and from weak desertification to non-desertification, while the desertification aggravation areas ranged mainly from serious desertification to moderate desertification; ⑤ NPP dynamic changes in vegetation demonstrated a zonal increase in distribution from west to east, and significant progress was made in desertification control. The change in desertification has accelerated significantly over the last decade. Climate change and irresponsible human activities have exacerbated desertification in the eastern part of the study area.
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