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Article

Channel Bed Deformation and Ice Jam Evolution around Bridge Piers

1
School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China
2
School of Engineering, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC V2N 4Z9, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Oliveto
Water 2022, 14(11), 1766; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111766
Received: 19 May 2022 / Revised: 26 May 2022 / Accepted: 27 May 2022 / Published: 31 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue River Hydraulics under Ice-Covered Flow Conditions)
The interaction between the evolution of an ice jam and the local scour at bridge piers becomes much more complicated due to the evolution of both the channel bed and ice jam. Thus, research work regarding this topic has been hardly conducted. In the present study, experiments under different flow conditions with three different pier shapes were carried out. Through laboratory experiments, the development of scour holes around bridge piers under open flow, ice-covered, and ice-jammed flow conditions was compared. The results show that under the same hydraulic condition and with the same ice discharge rate (Qi/Q), the development of an initial ice jam with a local scour around bridge piers along the entire flume takes a relatively short time. However, it takes a longer time for an ice jam to achieve an equilibrium state. With the presence of a local scour at bridge piers, after an ice jam reaches an equilibrium state, the ice jam thickness, water level, and water depth for flow are relatively larger compared to that without a local scour at the pier. The equilibrium ice jam thickness around the pier is negatively correlated with the initial flow Froude number. When the development of an initial ice jam is dominated by a mechanical thickening process, the rate of the development of a scour hole around a pier is faster. On the other hand, when the development of an initial ice jam is dominated by a hydraulic thickening process, the development of a scour hole around a pier can be treated as a scour process under an ice-covered flow condition. An equation was developed to determine the scour depth around a pier under an ice-jammed flow condition by considering related factors such as the flow Froude number, ice jam thickness, and ice discharge rate. The results of this research can provide a reference for bridge design and safety protection, as well as the interaction mechanism of local scour and ice jam evolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: bridge pier; local scour; ice jam evolution; ice jam thickness; scour hole bridge pier; local scour; ice jam evolution; ice jam thickness; scour hole
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, H.; Wang, J.; Cheng, T.; Hou, Z.; Sui, J. Channel Bed Deformation and Ice Jam Evolution around Bridge Piers. Water 2022, 14, 1766. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111766

AMA Style

Hu H, Wang J, Cheng T, Hou Z, Sui J. Channel Bed Deformation and Ice Jam Evolution around Bridge Piers. Water. 2022; 14(11):1766. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111766

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hu, Haotian, Jun Wang, Tiejie Cheng, Zhixing Hou, and Jueyi Sui. 2022. "Channel Bed Deformation and Ice Jam Evolution around Bridge Piers" Water 14, no. 11: 1766. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111766

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