The long-term overexploitation of groundwater has caused sharp decreases in groundwater table depth and water storage in the agricultural areas of the North China Plain, which has led to obvious changes in the runoff process of the hydrological cycle, affecting the mechanism of runoff generation. Evaluating the impact of groundwater overdraft on runoff generation using hydrological models is the focus of the current work. Herein, a hydrological modeling framework is proposed based on the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. The optimal parameters of the VIC model were determined by the synergetic calibration method, combining runoff, evaporation, and water storage levels. Meanwhile, a sliding calibration scheme was employed to explore the implied relationships among runoff coefficient, groundwater exploitation, and model parameters, particularly for the thickness of the second soil layer (i.e., parameter d2
), both for the whole period and the sliding window periods. Overall, the VIC model showed good applicability in the southern Haihe river plain, as demonstrated by the low absolute value of the relative error (RE) between the simulated and observed data for runoff and evaporation, with all REs < 8%, as well as large correlation coefficients (CC, all > 0.8). In addition, the CCs between the simulated and the observed data for water storage were all above 0.7. The calibrated optimal parameter d2
increased as the sliding window period increased, and the average d2
gradually increased from 0.372 m to 0.415 m, for which we also found high correlations with both the groundwater table and water storage levels. Additionally, increases in the parameter d2
led to decreases in the runoff coefficient. From 2003 to 2016, the parameter d2
increased from 0.36 m to 0.42 m, and the runoff coefficient decreased by about 0.02.
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