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Article

An Analysis of the Impact of Groundwater Overdraft on Runoff Generation in the North China Plain with a Hydrological Modeling Framework

by 1,2,†, 3,4,5,†, 3,4,6,*, 2, 3,4,6, 3,4, 3,4,5 and 2
1
Guizhou Survey and Design Research Institute for Water Resources and Hydropower, Guiyang 550001, China
2
School of Resources and Geosciences, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, China
4
Research Center for Climate Change, Ministry of Water Resources, Nanjing 210029, China
5
State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, College of Water Resource and Hydropower, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
6
Yangtze Institute for Conservation and Development, Nanjing 210098, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Pankaj Kumar
Water 2022, 14(11), 1758; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111758
Received: 9 May 2022 / Revised: 26 May 2022 / Accepted: 27 May 2022 / Published: 30 May 2022
The long-term overexploitation of groundwater has caused sharp decreases in groundwater table depth and water storage in the agricultural areas of the North China Plain, which has led to obvious changes in the runoff process of the hydrological cycle, affecting the mechanism of runoff generation. Evaluating the impact of groundwater overdraft on runoff generation using hydrological models is the focus of the current work. Herein, a hydrological modeling framework is proposed based on the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. The optimal parameters of the VIC model were determined by the synergetic calibration method, combining runoff, evaporation, and water storage levels. Meanwhile, a sliding calibration scheme was employed to explore the implied relationships among runoff coefficient, groundwater exploitation, and model parameters, particularly for the thickness of the second soil layer (i.e., parameter d2), both for the whole period and the sliding window periods. Overall, the VIC model showed good applicability in the southern Haihe river plain, as demonstrated by the low absolute value of the relative error (RE) between the simulated and observed data for runoff and evaporation, with all REs < 8%, as well as large correlation coefficients (CC, all > 0.8). In addition, the CCs between the simulated and the observed data for water storage were all above 0.7. The calibrated optimal parameter d2 increased as the sliding window period increased, and the average d2 gradually increased from 0.372 m to 0.415 m, for which we also found high correlations with both the groundwater table and water storage levels. Additionally, increases in the parameter d2 led to decreases in the runoff coefficient. From 2003 to 2016, the parameter d2 increased from 0.36 m to 0.42 m, and the runoff coefficient decreased by about 0.02. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater overdraft; runoff generation; VIC model; synergetic calibration; sliding calibration; water storage groundwater overdraft; runoff generation; VIC model; synergetic calibration; sliding calibration; water storage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tian, Y.; Yang, Y.; Bao, Z.; Song, X.; Wang, G.; Liu, C.; Wu, H.; Mo, Y. An Analysis of the Impact of Groundwater Overdraft on Runoff Generation in the North China Plain with a Hydrological Modeling Framework. Water 2022, 14, 1758. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111758

AMA Style

Tian Y, Yang Y, Bao Z, Song X, Wang G, Liu C, Wu H, Mo Y. An Analysis of the Impact of Groundwater Overdraft on Runoff Generation in the North China Plain with a Hydrological Modeling Framework. Water. 2022; 14(11):1758. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111758

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tian, Yimin, Yanqing Yang, Zhenxin Bao, Xiaomeng Song, Guoqing Wang, Cuishan Liu, Houfa Wu, and Yuchen Mo. 2022. "An Analysis of the Impact of Groundwater Overdraft on Runoff Generation in the North China Plain with a Hydrological Modeling Framework" Water 14, no. 11: 1758. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111758

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