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Article

Skin Mucus as a Relevant Low-Invasive Biological Matrix for the Measurement of an Acute Stress Response in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

1
Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Clinical Analysis Interlab-UMU, Regional Campus of International Excellence Mare Nostrum, University of Murcia, Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain
2
Department of Cell Biology, Physiology, and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
3
Institute of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
4
Centro de Biotecnología Acuícola, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago 9170002, Chile
5
Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Agronomía, Universidad de Las Américas, Santiago 7500975, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Marina Marcella Manca, José Maria Santos and Michele Mistri
Water 2022, 14(11), 1754; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111754
Received: 11 March 2022 / Revised: 11 May 2022 / Accepted: 23 May 2022 / Published: 30 May 2022
Skin mucus is a non-lethal and low-invasive matrix appropriate to assess fish welfare as it contributes to their defence against external aggressions and reflects changes in fish health status. However, more information on the response of this matrix to specific stressors is needed. In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) specimens were subjected to an acute stress by air exposure and sampled after 1, 6, and 24 h post-stress. Blood and skin mucus were collected, and a battery of biochemical biomarkers were measured in both matrices. Cortisol and glucose values showed the expected classical stress response in plasma, increasing after the acute stress. The same pattern was observed in skin mucus, corroborating previous data in fish, and allowing us to confirm that skin mucus can be a useful complementary matrix for stress assessment in fish. The results showed sensitivity to hypoxic stress in skin mucus for cortisol, glucose, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine kinase (CK), and calcium. From the 15 parameters evaluated, 12 did not show statistically significant changes between plasma and mucus; therefore, using skin mucus cannot replace the use of plasma. Finally, the principal component analysis in skin mucus revealed a complete separation between the two experimental groups, being ALP, AST, glucose, cortisol, and CK, the biomarkers that contributed the most to this separation. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarkers; skin mucus; fish; acute stress; rainbow trout biomarkers; skin mucus; fish; acute stress; rainbow trout
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MDPI and ACS Style

Franco-Martinez, L.; Brandts, I.; Reyes-López, F.; Tort, L.; Tvarijonaviciute, A.; Teles, M. Skin Mucus as a Relevant Low-Invasive Biological Matrix for the Measurement of an Acute Stress Response in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Water 2022, 14, 1754. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111754

AMA Style

Franco-Martinez L, Brandts I, Reyes-López F, Tort L, Tvarijonaviciute A, Teles M. Skin Mucus as a Relevant Low-Invasive Biological Matrix for the Measurement of an Acute Stress Response in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Water. 2022; 14(11):1754. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111754

Chicago/Turabian Style

Franco-Martinez, Lorena, Irene Brandts, Felipe Reyes-López, Lluís Tort, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, and Mariana Teles. 2022. "Skin Mucus as a Relevant Low-Invasive Biological Matrix for the Measurement of an Acute Stress Response in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)" Water 14, no. 11: 1754. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111754

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