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Article

Isotopic Assessment of Groundwater Salinity: A Case Study of the Southwest (SW) Region of Punjab, India

1
National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee 247667, India
2
Department of Soil and Water Conservation, Chandigarh 160017, India
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Department of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare, SAS Nagar, Sangrur 160055, India
4
School of Hydrology and Water Resources, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jinguo Wang, Zhi Dou, Hu Zheng and Chao Zhuang
Water 2022, 14(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010133
Received: 4 December 2021 / Revised: 21 December 2021 / Accepted: 30 December 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Topic Organic Pollution in Soil and Groundwater)
In recent decades, due to rapid increases in water demand and greater usage of water for irrigation from surface canals, waterlogging problems have been created in the southwest zone of Punjab, coupled with a stagnation in saline zone formation due to salinity ingression. To understand these salinity issues, the present study has been conducted in three districts (Muktsar, Fazilka, and Faridkot) of Punjab to understand the root cause. To this end, groundwater samples were collected from 142 piezometers developed at 40 sites. Electrical conductivity (EC) observations were taken in the field, and collected samples were analyzed for isotopes in the laboratory. Results found that salinity in groundwater arises from the combination of evaporation enrichment and salt dissolution. The dissolved salts may be acquired due to salts from aquifer materials or salts from surface soils dissolving and leaching down with the recharging water. Besides, the zone of interaction is mapped using stable isotopic composition. The study suggests that zone of interaction between aquifers can be effectively used in groundwater augmentation, management, and contamination control at regional and/or global scales to curb water demand in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: salinity; isotopes; electrical conductivity; southwest Punjab; groundwater salinity; isotopes; electrical conductivity; southwest Punjab; groundwater
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MDPI and ACS Style

Krishan, G.; Rao, M.S.; Vashisht, R.; Chaudhary, A.; Singh, J.; Kumar, A. Isotopic Assessment of Groundwater Salinity: A Case Study of the Southwest (SW) Region of Punjab, India. Water 2022, 14, 133. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010133

AMA Style

Krishan G, Rao MS, Vashisht R, Chaudhary A, Singh J, Kumar A. Isotopic Assessment of Groundwater Salinity: A Case Study of the Southwest (SW) Region of Punjab, India. Water. 2022; 14(1):133. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010133

Chicago/Turabian Style

Krishan, Gopal, Mavidanam S. Rao, Rajesh Vashisht, Anju Chaudhary, Jaswant Singh, and Amit Kumar. 2022. "Isotopic Assessment of Groundwater Salinity: A Case Study of the Southwest (SW) Region of Punjab, India" Water 14, no. 1: 133. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010133

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