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Article

Statistical and Hydrological Evaluations of Water Dynamics in the Lower Sai Gon-Dong Nai River, Vietnam

1
Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, Institute for Environment and Resources, Vietnam National University—Ho Chi Minh City (VNU-HCM), Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
2
Center of Infrastructure Management, Department of Construction of Ho Chi Minh City, 3C Thang 2 Street, Ward 11, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
3
Sub-Department of Water Resources, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development of Ho Chi Minh City, 176 Hai Ba Trung Street, Dakao Ward, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
4
Center of Climate Change and Water Management, Institute for Environment and Resources, Vietnam National University—Ho Chi Minh City (VNU-HCM), Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Xiang Zhang, Yiqun Chen and Abbas Rajabifard
Water 2022, 14(1), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010130
Received: 6 December 2021 / Revised: 25 December 2021 / Accepted: 1 January 2022 / Published: 5 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Water Resilience to Achieve SDGs)
The water levels downstream of the Sai Gon and Dong Nai river in Southern Vietnam have been significantly changed over the last three decades, leading to severe impacts on urban flooding and salinity intrusion and threating the socio-economic development of the region and lives of many local people. In this study, the Mann-Kendall (MK) and trend-free prewhitening (TFPW) tests were applied to detect the water level trends and changepoints based on a water level time series at six gauging stations that were located along the main rivers to the sea over 1980–2019. The results indicated that the water level has rapidly increased by about 0.17 to 1.8 cm/year at most gauge stations surrounding Ho Chi Minh City, strongly relating to urbanization and the dike polder system’s impacts that eliminates the water storage space. In addition, the operation of upstream reservoirs has contributed to water level changes with significant consequences since the high-water level at Tri An station on the Dong Nai river occurs 1000–1500 times compared to 300–500 times before the operation. Although the effects of the flows from the sea are less than the two other factors, the local government should seriously consider water level changes, especially in the coastal regions. Our study contributes empirical evidence to evaluate the water level trends in the planning and development of infrastructure, which is necessary to adapt to future changes in Southern Vietnam’s hydrologic system. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ho Chi Minh City; Mann-Kendall test; polder system; sea level rise; Trend-Free Prewhitening; urbanization; water level trend Ho Chi Minh City; Mann-Kendall test; polder system; sea level rise; Trend-Free Prewhitening; urbanization; water level trend
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giang, N.N.H.; Quang, C.N.X.; Long, D.T.; Ky, P.D.; Vu, N.D.; Tran, D.D. Statistical and Hydrological Evaluations of Water Dynamics in the Lower Sai Gon-Dong Nai River, Vietnam. Water 2022, 14, 130. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010130

AMA Style

Giang NNH, Quang CNX, Long DT, Ky PD, Vu ND, Tran DD. Statistical and Hydrological Evaluations of Water Dynamics in the Lower Sai Gon-Dong Nai River, Vietnam. Water. 2022; 14(1):130. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010130

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giang, Ngo N.H., Chau N.X. Quang, Do T. Long, Pham D. Ky, Nguyen D. Vu, and Dung D. Tran. 2022. "Statistical and Hydrological Evaluations of Water Dynamics in the Lower Sai Gon-Dong Nai River, Vietnam" Water 14, no. 1: 130. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010130

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