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Open AccessArticle

Water Quality and Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of Some Karst Water Sources in Apuseni Mountains, Romania

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INCDO-INOE 2000 Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, 67 Donath Street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Technical University, 103-105 Muncii Boulevard, 400641 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Faculty of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 3-5 Calea Manastur, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Department of Geospeleology and Paleontology, Emil Racovitza Institute of Speleology, Calea 13 Septembrie, 050711 Bucharest, Romania
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Cluj Department, Emil Racovita Institute of Speleology, 5 Clinicilor Street, 400006 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guilin Han
Water 2021, 13(6), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060857
Received: 2 March 2021 / Revised: 17 March 2021 / Accepted: 18 March 2021 / Published: 21 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Karst Eco-Hydrology and Sediment)
Human activities and natural factors determine the hydrogeochemical characteristics of karst groundwaters and their use as drinking water. This study assesses the hydrogeochemical characteristics of 14 karst water sources in the Apuseni Mountains (NW Romania) and their potential use as drinking water sources. As shown by the Durov and by the Piper diagrams, the chemical composition of the waters is typical of karst waters as it is dominated by HCO3 and Ca2+, having a circumneutral to alkaline pH and total dissolved solids ranging between 131 and 1092 mg L−1. The relation between the major ions revealed that dissolution is the main process contributing to the water chemistry. Limestone and dolostone are the main Ca and Mg sources, while halite is the main Na and Cl source. The Gibbs diagram confirmed the rock dominance of the water chemistry. The groundwater quality index (GWQI) showed that the waters are of excellent quality, except for two waters that displayed medium and good quality status. The quality of the studied karst waters is influenced by the geological characteristics, mainly by the water–rock interaction and, to a more limited extent, by anthropogenic activities. The investigated karst waters could be exploited as drinking water resources in the study area. The results of the present study highlight the importance of karst waters in the context of good-quality water shortage but also the vulnerability of this resource to anthropogenic influences. View Full-Text
Keywords: karst springs; groundwater quality assessment; water–rock interaction; evaporation processes karst springs; groundwater quality assessment; water–rock interaction; evaporation processes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hoaghia, M.-A.; Moldovan, A.; Kovacs, E.; Mirea, I.C.; Kenesz, M.; Brad, T.; Cadar, O.; Micle, V.; Levei, E.A.; Moldovan, O.T. Water Quality and Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of Some Karst Water Sources in Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Water 2021, 13, 857. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060857

AMA Style

Hoaghia M-A, Moldovan A, Kovacs E, Mirea IC, Kenesz M, Brad T, Cadar O, Micle V, Levei EA, Moldovan OT. Water Quality and Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of Some Karst Water Sources in Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Water. 2021; 13(6):857. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060857

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hoaghia, Maria-Alexandra; Moldovan, Ana; Kovacs, Eniko; Mirea, Ionut C.; Kenesz, Marius; Brad, Traian; Cadar, Oana; Micle, Valer; Levei, Erika A.; Moldovan, Oana T. 2021. "Water Quality and Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of Some Karst Water Sources in Apuseni Mountains, Romania" Water 13, no. 6: 857. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060857

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