Most of the current studies on soil conservation measures mainly focus on their soil control effect, neglecting their impact on water quantity. In the present study, the latest seven years (2014–2020) of monitored data from 22 runoff plots in the upstream catchment of the Miyun Reservoir, Beijing were used to evaluate the effects of slope, rainfall, and soil conservation measures on soil and water loss, and some implications were given in this water-scarce region. Excluding the impact of soil conservation measures, soil loss increased with the slope gradient and slope length. Runoff and soil loss were greatly affected by the rainfall amount and maximum 30-min rainfall intensity on the bare and cultivated slopes, or by rainfall amount and rainfall duration on almost all of the plots with soil conservation measures. The results indicated that the bare soil suffered the most severe soil loss, with a mean annual soil loss rate (SLR) of 4325 t km−2
, followed by the cultivated lands without any measure, with an annual SLR of above 3205 t km−2
. Contour tillage cannot effectively control soil loss on steep slopes. The vegetation measures and terrace, level bench, and fish scale pits, as well as their combinations, can decrease runoff by above 86% and decrease soil loss by 95%, respectively. Water-saving measures should be implemented in the study region. The measures, such as vegetation coverage, terracing, contour tillage, etc., should be carefully implemented on slopes. Bare and cultivated lands should further be implemented with soil conservation measures in this and similar regions in the world.
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