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Open AccessArticle

Variation of Diatoms at Different Scales in the Brazilian Pantanal Basin

1
Programa de Pós-graduação de Engenharia Agrícola, Recursos Hídricos, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel CEP 85819-110, Brazil
2
Laboratório de Análise e Síntese em Biodiversidade, Departamento de Botânica, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia e Conservação, Programa de Pós-graduação em Botânica, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba CEP 81531-990, Brazil
3
Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais, Núcleo de Pesquisa em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura (Nupelia), Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá CEP 87020-900, Brazil
4
Núcleo de Ecologia, Instituto de Botânica, SIMA, São Paulo CEP 04301-902, Brazil
5
Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Centro de Estudos Florestais CEF, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Manuela Morais and Maria Helena Novais
Water 2021, 13(6), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060823
Received: 2 February 2021 / Revised: 28 February 2021 / Accepted: 4 March 2021 / Published: 17 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inland Aquatic Ecosystems and Conservation)
(1) Background: We analyzed the diatom community structure of the surface sediments, in three permanent ponds in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil, to better understand how biota in these aquatic environments depend on structural connectivity and functional connectivity: (2) Methods: Ten samples sites were established in each pond, water and the sediment were taken during the flood period. Abiotic–biotic variables were determined and standardized; (3) Results: The three ponds presented acidic water and high concentration of nitrogen, with the highest acidity for Ferradura Pond (P1) and the highest trophic status index for Burro Pond (P2), but the greatest environmental variations occurred in Caracará Pond (P3). The variation in diversity between sites in the same pond is what contributes the most to gamma diversity. The most abundant species was Aulacoseiraitalica (Ehrenberg) Simonsen and the genus Eunotia Ehrenberg was the most representative in species. Ferradura Pond, there was a relationship between compositional and environmental dissimilarities with geographic distance, but there was no independent. Burro Pond, the relationship the compositional variation with environmental variables was not significant. Caracará Pond, there was a relationship of compositional dissimilarity both with geographical distance and with environmental; (4) Conclusions: The set of results suggests that the mechanisms that determine the metacommunity of each pond are different and that the environmental conditions and dispersion influenced the structure and composition. Since, diatom species were different between ponds, and ponds more eutrophic showed less diversity. The pH and oligotrophy were the main factors to maintain the greatest diversity of species of the genus Eunotia and the greatest abundance of Aulacoseira italica. Knowing the dynamics and structure of diatoms, which are at the beginning of the food chain, is essential for conserving, maintaining, or rehabilitating wetland ecosystems, such as the Pantanal, which is part La Plata river basin, which represents the second largest surface for water resources in South America and the Guarani Aquifer System, the biggest unified groundwater aquifer in the world. View Full-Text
Keywords: connectivity; diatom; environmental structure; metacommunity; surface sediments connectivity; diatom; environmental structure; metacommunity; surface sediments
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nardelli, M.S.; Padial, A.A.; Bicudo, D.C.; Cordovil, C.M.d.S.; Sampaio, S.C. Variation of Diatoms at Different Scales in the Brazilian Pantanal Basin. Water 2021, 13, 823. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060823

AMA Style

Nardelli MS, Padial AA, Bicudo DC, Cordovil CMdS, Sampaio SC. Variation of Diatoms at Different Scales in the Brazilian Pantanal Basin. Water. 2021; 13(6):823. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060823

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nardelli, Margaret S.; Padial, André A.; Bicudo, Denise C.; Cordovil, Claudia M.d.S.; Sampaio, Silvio C. 2021. "Variation of Diatoms at Different Scales in the Brazilian Pantanal Basin" Water 13, no. 6: 823. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060823

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