Framework of Emergency Response System for Potential Large-Scale Landslide in Taiwan
2. Hazard Mapping for Large-Scale Landslide Disasters
2.1. Disasters Caused by Large-Scale Landslides
2.2. Effected Area of Large-Scale Landslide
3. Pre-Warning System for Large-Scale Landslide Disasters
3.1. The Occurrence Mechanism of Large-Scale Landslides
3.2. Establishment of Rainfall Warning Threshold for Large-Scale Landslide
3.2.1. Landslide Cases Collation
3.2.2. Landslide Rainfall Analysis Methods
- Rainfall during landslide, R:There are several ways to calculate rainfall including rainfall peak, average rainfall intensity, and accumulated rainfall. Based on the research of Tsai et al. , Kuo et al. , and Yu , most of the large-scale landslides happened after rainfall peak and were significantly related to accumulated rainfall. Rainfall peak and average rainfall intensity have little connection to the occurrence of the large-scale landslides. Hence, accumulated rainfall was used for analysis in this study. Regarding the calculation method of rainfall events, this study deployed effective cumulative rainfall calculations, where effective cumulative rainfall included event rainfall (Ro) and prior rainfall (Ri). The event rainfall (Ro) was taken from 24-h rainfall before the landslide occurrence. If the rainfall lasted for more than 24 h, the rainfall exceeding 24 h was defined as the prior rainfall (Ri), and the calculation of the prior rainfall required consideration of a period of 7 days (144 h). For cases where the time of occurrence was already known, the effective accumulated rainfall was taken as the rainfall corresponding to that incident. In cases where only the occurrence of an event was known, the maximum effective accumulated rainfall of the event was taken as the representative rainfall.
- Depth of landslide, D:The depth of landslide was calculated with the volume (V) and area (A) of the landslide (Equation (2)). There are various papers discussing the formula for volume and depth estimation of landslides [33,34]. Considering the localized conditions in Taiwan, Water Resources Planning Institute , Tseng et al.  had proposed modified formulae which were collected and compared by the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau . The formula used in this study was adopted from the research conducted by the Soils and Water Conservation Bureau (Equation (3)).
- The gradient of the slope where the landslide is located, θ:As the slope of a landslide may have multiple gradients, the averaged gradient within the landslide area was utilized. This research used the Zonal Statistics function of the spatial analysis module of ArcGIS software for calculations.
- Equivalent friction angle, Φ:Scheidegger  mentioned that the relationship between the equivalent friction coefficient (f) and the landslide volume (V) could be expressed as Formula (4). The relationship between equivalent friction coefficient (f) and equivalent friction angle (Φ) is shown as Formula (5). By using Formula (2), indicating the relationship between the projected landslide area (A) and the landslide volume (V), the equivalent friction angle (Φ) could be derived.
3.2.3. Establishment of Critical Rainfall for Large-Scale Landslide Occurrence
3.2.4. Establishing Rainfall Warning Threshold Value for Large-Scale Landslide Occurrence
4. Results and Discussion
4.2.1. Feasibility Assessment for Emergency Response System
- Type 1: Those that overlap with existing debris flow protected targets.The responsive preparedness method should continue the existing debris flow preparedness operations, giving due reference to the results of the large-scale landslide impact area designations and updating the existing evacuation procedures. When issuing alerts, they should be announced in conjunction with the existing debris flow contingency mechanisms and evacuations issued with reference to the current red-yellow warning system for debris flow.
- Type 2: Those that have no overlap with the existing debris flow protected targets.In response efforts, reference should be made to the results of the large-scale landslide impact area to increase the warning zone scope and develop new evacuation procedures. Warnings should be issued based on rainfall or other observational data, and on-site evacuation mechanisms should be established.
4.2.2. Acceptability Assessments for Emergency Response System
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Tsai, Y.-J.; Syu, F.-T.; Shieh, C.-L.; Chung, C.-R.; Lin, S.-S.; Yin, H.-Y. Framework of Emergency Response System for Potential Large-Scale Landslide in Taiwan. Water 2021, 13, 712. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050712
Tsai Y-J, Syu F-T, Shieh C-L, Chung C-R, Lin S-S, Yin H-Y. Framework of Emergency Response System for Potential Large-Scale Landslide in Taiwan. Water. 2021; 13(5):712. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050712Chicago/Turabian Style
Tsai, Yuan-Jung, Fang-Tsz Syu, Chjeng-Lun Shieh, Chi-Rong Chung, Shih-Shu Lin, and Hsiao-Yuan Yin. 2021. "Framework of Emergency Response System for Potential Large-Scale Landslide in Taiwan" Water 13, no. 5: 712. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050712