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Article

Validation of Water Quality Monitoring Algorithms for Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 in Mediterranean Inland Waters with In Situ Reflectance Data

1
Image Processing Laboratory, Universitat de València, C/Catedrático José Beltrán Martínez, 2, 46980 València, Spain
2
Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology (ICBiBE), Universitat de València, C/Catedrático José Beltrán Martínez, 2, 46980 València, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sara Cristina Antunes
Water 2021, 13(5), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050686
Received: 8 January 2021 / Revised: 25 February 2021 / Accepted: 25 February 2021 / Published: 3 March 2021
Freshwater quality maintenance is essential for human use and ecological functions. To ensure this objective, governments establish programs for a continuous monitoring of the inland waters state. This could be possible with Sentinel-2 (S2) and Sentinel-3 (S3), two remote sensing satellites of the European Space Agency, equipped with spectral optical sensors. To determine optimal water quality algorithms applicable to their spectral bands, 36 algorithms were tested for different key variables (chlorophyll a (Chl_a), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), colored dissolved organic matter (TSS), phycocyanin (PC) and Secchi disk depth (SDD)). A database of 296 water-leaving reflectance spectra were used, as well as concomitant water quality measurements of Mediterranean reservoirs and lakes of Spain. Two equal data sets were used for calibration and validation. The best algorithms were recalculated using all database and used the following band relations: SDD, R560/R700; CDOM, R665/R490; PC, R705/R665 for S2 and R620, R665, R709 and R779 for S3, using a semi-analytical algorithm; R700 for TSS < 20 mg/L and R783/R492 (S2) or R779/R510 (S3) for TSS > 20 mg/L; and for Chl_a, the maximum (R443; R492)/R560 for Chl_a < 5 mg/m3 and R700/R665 for Chl_a > 5 mg/m3. A preliminary test with a satellite image in a well-known reservoir showed results consistent with the expected ranges and spatial patterns of the variables. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality; Sentinel; optically complex waters; Secchi disc depth; chlorophyll a; phycocyanin; total suspended solids; CDOM; empirical models; semi-analytical model water quality; Sentinel; optically complex waters; Secchi disc depth; chlorophyll a; phycocyanin; total suspended solids; CDOM; empirical models; semi-analytical model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sòria-Perpinyà, X.; Vicente, E.; Urrego, P.; Pereira-Sandoval, M.; Tenjo, C.; Ruíz-Verdú, A.; Delegido, J.; Soria, J.M.; Peña, R.; Moreno, J. Validation of Water Quality Monitoring Algorithms for Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 in Mediterranean Inland Waters with In Situ Reflectance Data. Water 2021, 13, 686. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050686

AMA Style

Sòria-Perpinyà X, Vicente E, Urrego P, Pereira-Sandoval M, Tenjo C, Ruíz-Verdú A, Delegido J, Soria JM, Peña R, Moreno J. Validation of Water Quality Monitoring Algorithms for Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 in Mediterranean Inland Waters with In Situ Reflectance Data. Water. 2021; 13(5):686. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050686

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sòria-Perpinyà, Xavier, Eduardo Vicente, Patricia Urrego, Marcela Pereira-Sandoval, Carolina Tenjo, Antonio Ruíz-Verdú, Jesús Delegido, Juan M. Soria, Ramón Peña, and José Moreno. 2021. "Validation of Water Quality Monitoring Algorithms for Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 in Mediterranean Inland Waters with In Situ Reflectance Data" Water 13, no. 5: 686. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050686

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