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Article

Resilience Assessment of Water Quality Sensor Designs under Cyber-Physical Attacks

1
Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Heroon Polytechneiou 5, 157 80 Athens, Greece
2
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manuel J. Rodriguez
Water 2021, 13(5), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050647
Received: 28 January 2021 / Revised: 14 February 2021 / Accepted: 20 February 2021 / Published: 28 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
Water distribution networks (WDNs) are critical infrastructure for the welfare of society. Due to their spatial extent and difficulties in deployment of security measures, they are vulnerable to threat scenarios that include the rising concern of cyber-physical attacks. To protect WDNs against different kinds of water contamination, it is customary to deploy water quality (WQ) monitoring sensors. Cyber-attacks on the monitoring system that employs WQ sensors combined with deliberate contamination events via backflow attacks can lead to severe disruptions to water delivery or even potentially fatal consequences for consumers. As such, the water sector is in immediate need of tools and methodologies that can support cyber-physical quality attack simulation and vulnerability assessment of the WQ monitoring system under such attacks. In this study we demonstrate a novel methodology to assess the resilience of placement schemes generated with the Threat Ensemble Vulnerability Assessment and Sensor Placement Optimization Tool (TEVA-SPOT) and evaluated under cyber-physical attacks simulated using the stress-testing platform RISKNOUGHT, using multidimensional metrics and resilience profile graphs. The results of this study show that some sensor designs are inherently more resilient than others, and this trait can be exploited in risk management practices. View Full-Text
Keywords: water distribution systems; water quality sensor; resilience; cyber-physical attacks; cyber-physical systems; SCADA; sensor designs; contaminant warning system; stress-testing; risk management water distribution systems; water quality sensor; resilience; cyber-physical attacks; cyber-physical systems; SCADA; sensor designs; contaminant warning system; stress-testing; risk management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nikolopoulos, D.; Ostfeld, A.; Salomons, E.; Makropoulos, C. Resilience Assessment of Water Quality Sensor Designs under Cyber-Physical Attacks. Water 2021, 13, 647. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050647

AMA Style

Nikolopoulos D, Ostfeld A, Salomons E, Makropoulos C. Resilience Assessment of Water Quality Sensor Designs under Cyber-Physical Attacks. Water. 2021; 13(5):647. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050647

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nikolopoulos, Dionysios, Avi Ostfeld, Elad Salomons, and Christos Makropoulos. 2021. "Resilience Assessment of Water Quality Sensor Designs under Cyber-Physical Attacks" Water 13, no. 5: 647. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050647

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