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Article

Modeling the Formation and Propagation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, a Dominant Taste and Odor Compound, in Water Distribution Systems

Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jiangyong Hu
Water 2021, 13(5), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050638
Received: 29 January 2021 / Revised: 23 February 2021 / Accepted: 23 February 2021 / Published: 27 February 2021
2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) formation is often reported as a cause of taste and odor (T&O) problems in water distribution systems (WDSs). The biosynthesis via microbial O-methylation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) is the dominant formation pathway in distribution pipes. This paper attempted to utilize the reported data on the microbial O-methylation process to formulate deterministic kinetic models for explaining 2,4,6-TCA formation dynamics in WDSs. The pipe material’s critical role in stimulating O-methyltransferases enzymatic activity and regulating 2,4,6-TCP bioconversion in water was established. The kinetic expressions formulated were later applied to develop a novel EPANET-MSX-based multi-species reactive-transport (MSRT) model. The effects of operating conditions and temperature in directing the microbiological, chemical, and organoleptic quality variations in WDSs were analyzed using the MSRT model on two benchmark systems. The simulation results specified chlorine application’s implication in maintaining 2,4,6-TCA levels within its perception limit (4 ng/L). In addition, the temperature sensitivity of O-methyltransferases enzymatic activity was described, and the effect of temperature increase from 10 to 25 °C in accelerating the 2,4,6-TCA formation rate in WDSs was explained. Controlling source water 2,4,6-TCP concentration by accepting appropriate treatment techniques was recommended as the primary strategy for regulating the T&O problems in WDSs. View Full-Text
Keywords: 2,4,6-trichloroanisole; 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; taste and odor; microbial O-methylation; water quality; EPANET-MSX 2,4,6-trichloroanisole; 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; taste and odor; microbial O-methylation; water quality; EPANET-MSX
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abhijith, G.R.; Ostfeld, A. Modeling the Formation and Propagation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, a Dominant Taste and Odor Compound, in Water Distribution Systems. Water 2021, 13, 638. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050638

AMA Style

Abhijith GR, Ostfeld A. Modeling the Formation and Propagation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, a Dominant Taste and Odor Compound, in Water Distribution Systems. Water. 2021; 13(5):638. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050638

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abhijith, Gopinathan R., and Avi Ostfeld. 2021. "Modeling the Formation and Propagation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, a Dominant Taste and Odor Compound, in Water Distribution Systems" Water 13, no. 5: 638. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050638

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