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Article

The Impact of Climate Warming on Lake Surface Heat Exchange and Ice Phenology of Different Types of Lakes on the Tibetan Plateau

by 1,2, 2,3,4,*, 1 and 1,2
1
Key Laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in Cold and Arid Regions, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
4
CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Meixner
Water 2021, 13(5), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050634
Received: 26 December 2020 / Revised: 11 February 2021 / Accepted: 23 February 2021 / Published: 27 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy and Water Cycles in the Third Pole)
Increasing air temperature is a significant feature of climate warming, and is cause for some concern, particularly on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). A lack of observations means that the impact of rising air temperatures on TP lakes has received little attention. Lake surfaces play a unique role in determining local and regional climate. This study analyzed the effect of increasing air temperature on lake surface temperature (LST), latent heat flux (LE), sensible heat flux (H), and ice phenology at Lake Nam Co and Lake Ngoring, which have mean depths of approximately 40 m and 25 m, respectively, and are in the central and eastern TP, respectively. The variables were simulated using an adjusted Fresh-water Lake (FLake) model (FLake_α_ice = 0.15). The simulated results were evaluated against in situ observations of LST, LE and H, and against LST data derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2015 to 2016. The simulations show that when the air temperature increases, LST increases, and the rate of increase is greater in winter than in summer; annual LE increases; H and ice thickness decrease; ice freeze-up date is delayed; and the break-up date advances. The changes in the variables in response to the temperature increases are similar at the two lakes from August to December, but are significantly different from December to July. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tibetan Plateau; climate warming; lake surface temperature; heat exchange; lake ice phenology Tibetan Plateau; climate warming; lake surface temperature; heat exchange; lake ice phenology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lang, J.; Ma, Y.; Li, Z.; Su, D. The Impact of Climate Warming on Lake Surface Heat Exchange and Ice Phenology of Different Types of Lakes on the Tibetan Plateau. Water 2021, 13, 634. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050634

AMA Style

Lang J, Ma Y, Li Z, Su D. The Impact of Climate Warming on Lake Surface Heat Exchange and Ice Phenology of Different Types of Lakes on the Tibetan Plateau. Water. 2021; 13(5):634. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050634

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lang, Jiahe, Yaoming Ma, Zhaoguo Li, and Dongsheng Su. 2021. "The Impact of Climate Warming on Lake Surface Heat Exchange and Ice Phenology of Different Types of Lakes on the Tibetan Plateau" Water 13, no. 5: 634. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050634

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