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Article

Quantifying the Response of Grass Carp Larvae to Acoustic Stimuli Using Particle-Tracking Velocimetry

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign, 205 N Mathews Ave. M/C 250, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
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Academic Editor: Rui Cortes
Water 2021, 13(5), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050603
Received: 8 January 2021 / Revised: 17 February 2021 / Accepted: 19 February 2021 / Published: 25 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Biodiversity and Functionality of Aquatic Ecosystems)
Acoustic deterrents are recognized as a promising method to prevent the spread of invasive grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844) and the negative ecological impacts caused by them. As the efficacy of sound barriers depends on the hearing capabilities of carp, it is important to identify whether carps can recognize acoustic signals and alter their swimming behavior. Our study focuses on quantifying the response of grass carp larvae when exposed to out-of-water acoustic signals within the range of 100–1000 Hz, by capturing their movement using particle-tracking velocimetry (PTV), a quantitative imaging tool often used for hydrodynamic studies. The number of responsive larvae is counted to compute response ratio at each frequency, to quantify the influence of sound on larval behavior. While the highest response occurred at 700 Hz, we did not observe any clear functional relation between frequency of sound and response ratio. Overall, 20–30% of larvae were consistently reacting to sound stimuli regardless of the frequency. In this study, we emphasize that larval behaviors when exposed to acoustic signals vary by individual, and thus a sufficient number of larvae should be surveyed at the same time under identical conditions, to better quantify their sensitivity to sound rather than repeating the experiment with individual specimens. Since bulk quantification, such as mean or quantile velocities of multiple specimens, can misrepresent larval behavior, our study finds that including the response ratio can more effectively reflect the larval response. View Full-Text
Keywords: grass carp; acoustic deterrents; invasive species; particle tracking velocimetry grass carp; acoustic deterrents; invasive species; particle tracking velocimetry
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MDPI and ACS Style

You, H.; Tinoco, R.O. Quantifying the Response of Grass Carp Larvae to Acoustic Stimuli Using Particle-Tracking Velocimetry. Water 2021, 13, 603. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050603

AMA Style

You H, Tinoco RO. Quantifying the Response of Grass Carp Larvae to Acoustic Stimuli Using Particle-Tracking Velocimetry. Water. 2021; 13(5):603. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050603

Chicago/Turabian Style

You, Hojung, and Rafael O. Tinoco. 2021. "Quantifying the Response of Grass Carp Larvae to Acoustic Stimuli Using Particle-Tracking Velocimetry" Water 13, no. 5: 603. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050603

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