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Open AccessArticle

Possible Sources of Salinity in the Upper Dibdibba Aquifer, Basrah, Iraq

1
Geology Institute, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 12, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
2
Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad 10071, Iraq
3
General Commission for Groundwater, Baghdad 10053, Iraq
4
Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Faculty, Al Baath University, Homs, Syria
5
Institute for Biosciences, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Str. 29, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Glen R. Walker
Water 2021, 13(4), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040578
Received: 17 January 2021 / Revised: 12 February 2021 / Accepted: 19 February 2021 / Published: 23 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
Salinity increase in groundwater was investigated in the area between Al-Zubair and Safwan, and close to the Khor Al-Zubair Channel of southern Iraq. Thirty-nine groundwater samples from the shallow aquifer and one sample from the Khor Al-Zubair Channel were analyzed. The mean total dissolved solids are 7556 mg/L. The δ2H and δ18O plot in two groups are below the global meteoric water line. Group A indicates the evaporation effect of irrigation return-flow, while group B is characterized by depleted δ18O values due to recharge under colder climate. Deuterium excess values plot within the region of modern precipitation and dilution of groundwater by precipitating water. The groundwater residence time is between 1000 and 2000 years and combining 14C -age with SO42− shows a contrasting effect on groundwater on both sides of Khedr Almai Fault and the Zubair anticline, which indicates the role of these geological structures on the hydrochemical evolution in the western part. Jabal Sanam shows no clear effect in this regard. The ratio Cl/Br and sulfate in groundwater showed that the measured salinity in groundwater is the result of a mixing process between groundwater, seawater intruding from Khor Al-Zubair Channel, and water from septic tanks in addition to dry and wet sea spray, and irrigation return-flow. View Full-Text
Keywords: Khor Al-Zubair Channel; Jabal Sanam; seawater intrusion; stable isotopes; radiocarbon; Cl/Br−ratio; Deuterium excess; irrigation return flow Khor Al-Zubair Channel; Jabal Sanam; seawater intrusion; stable isotopes; radiocarbon; Cl/Br−ratio; Deuterium excess; irrigation return flow
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abdulameer, A.; Thabit, J.M.; Kanoua, W.; Wiche, O.; Merkel, B. Possible Sources of Salinity in the Upper Dibdibba Aquifer, Basrah, Iraq. Water 2021, 13, 578. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040578

AMA Style

Abdulameer A, Thabit JM, Kanoua W, Wiche O, Merkel B. Possible Sources of Salinity in the Upper Dibdibba Aquifer, Basrah, Iraq. Water. 2021; 13(4):578. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040578

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abdulameer, Ahmed; Thabit, Jassim M.; Kanoua, Wael; Wiche, Oliver; Merkel, Broder. 2021. "Possible Sources of Salinity in the Upper Dibdibba Aquifer, Basrah, Iraq" Water 13, no. 4: 578. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040578

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