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Open AccessArticle

Removal of Tetracycline Oxidation Products in the Nanofiltration Process

1
Łukasiewicz Research Network—Textile Research Institute, ul. Brzezińska 5/15, 92-103 Łódź, Poland
2
Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Lodz University of Technology, ul. Wólczańska 213, 90-924 Łódź, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dionysios (Dion) D. Dionysiou
Water 2021, 13(4), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040555
Received: 7 January 2021 / Revised: 12 February 2021 / Accepted: 17 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
The possibility of removing tetracycline (TRC) from water in an integrated advanced oxidation and membrane filtration process was investigated. Ozonation and UV/H2O2 photooxidation were applied for the destruction of TRC. Six oxidation products (OPs) retaining the structural core of TRC have been identified. One new TRC oxidation product, not reported so far in the literature, was identified—ethyl 4-ethoxybenzoate. All identified OPs were effectively retained on the membrane in the nanofiltration process. However, chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements of the filtrates showed that in the case of UV/H2O2 oxidation, the OPs passed through the membrane into the filtrate. Various water matrices were used in the research, including the river water untreated and after ozone treatment. It has been shown that organic matter present in surface water can improve pharmaceutical retention, although it contributes to significant membrane fouling. Pre-ozonation of the river water reduced the membrane fouling. The XPS analysis was used to show ozone and H2O2 influence on the top polymer layer of the membrane. It was shown that the oxidants can damage the amide bond of the polyamide. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetracycline; advanced oxidation processes; oxidation products; nanofiltration tetracycline; advanced oxidation processes; oxidation products; nanofiltration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Żyłła, R.; Ledakowicz, S.; Boruta, T.; Olak-Kucharczyk, M.; Foszpańczyk, M.; Mrozińska, Z.; Balcerzak, J. Removal of Tetracycline Oxidation Products in the Nanofiltration Process. Water 2021, 13, 555. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040555

AMA Style

Żyłła R, Ledakowicz S, Boruta T, Olak-Kucharczyk M, Foszpańczyk M, Mrozińska Z, Balcerzak J. Removal of Tetracycline Oxidation Products in the Nanofiltration Process. Water. 2021; 13(4):555. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040555

Chicago/Turabian Style

Żyłła, Renata; Ledakowicz, Stanisław; Boruta, Tomasz; Olak-Kucharczyk, Magdalena; Foszpańczyk, Magdalena; Mrozińska, Zdzisława; Balcerzak, Jacek. 2021. "Removal of Tetracycline Oxidation Products in the Nanofiltration Process" Water 13, no. 4: 555. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040555

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