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Hydrochemical and Isotopic Characterization of the Waters of the Manglaralto River Basin (Ecuador) to Contribute to the Management of the Coastal Aquifer

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Centro de Investigación y Proyectos Aplicados a las Ciencias de la Tierra (CIPAT), Campus Gustavo Galindo Km 30.5 Vía Perimetral, ESPOL Polytechnic University, Guayaquil P.O. Box 09-01-5863, Ecuador
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Facultad de Ingeniería en Ciencias de la Tierra (FICT), Campus Gustavo Galindo Km 30.5 Vía Perimetral, ESPOL Polytechnic University, Guayaquil P.O. Box 09-01-5863, Ecuador
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Centro de Investigación e Innovación de Geociencias (CIGEO), Facultad de Ciencias de la Ingeniería, Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena (UPSE), Avda. Principal La Libertad-Santa Elena, La Libertad 240204, Ecuador
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Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas (FCNM), Campus Gustavo Galindo Km 30.5 Vía Perimetral, ESPOL Polytechnic University, Guayaquil P.O. Box 09-01-5863, Ecuador
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Geo-Recursos y Aplicaciones GIGA, Campus Gustavo Galindo Km 30.5 Vía Perimetral, ESPOL Polytechnic University, Guayaquil P.O. Box 09-01-5863, Ecuador
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Instituto Geológico y Minero de España. Ríos Rosas, 23, 28003 Madrid, Spain
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ETSI de Minas y Energía de Madrid, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28003 Madrid, Spain
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paolo Madonia
Water 2021, 13(4), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040537
Received: 30 December 2020 / Revised: 10 February 2021 / Accepted: 12 February 2021 / Published: 19 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry of Groundwater)
Coastal aquifers are strategic and fundamental in the development of touristic areas. The coastal aquifer within the Manglaralto River Basin in Ecuador is essential, as it is the only source of water supply for a large part of the northern part of the Santa Elena province. It is a semi-arid region where high volumes of water are pumped from the aquifer, causing a significant drawdown of groundwater levels, thus affecting the water quality. This work aims to characterize the characteristics of groundwater in the coastal aquifer using hydrochemistry and stable isotopes to propose a hydrogeological conceptual model. The methodology for determining the chemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater follows the following scheme: (i) studies of ionic concentrations using the Piper diagram, (ii) assessment of the origin of salinity through the Cl/Br ratio, the presence of seawater intrusion through the Hydrochemical Facies Evolution Diagram HFE-D, (iii) characterization of precipitation events using stable isotopes (18O and 2H), and, (iv) development of a hydrogeological conceptual model of the study area. The results indicate that in the basin there are mixing processes of the existing water in the aquifer with recharge water, direct cation exchange processes in the freshening process during recharge, and evaporation in the unsaturated zone. A conceptual model of the flow system in the basin is built, based on the mentioned processes. The main conclusions are: seawater intrusion is present in the areas of the wells located closest to the coast, urban activity through septic tanks is affecting the quality of the aquifer, and rainfall is highly relevant in the different hydrochemical and isotopic processes that operate in the basin. View Full-Text
Keywords: Manglaralto coastal aquifer; seawater intrusion; freshening; hydrochemical; isotopes Manglaralto coastal aquifer; seawater intrusion; freshening; hydrochemical; isotopes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carrión-Mero, P.; Montalván, F.J.; Morante-Carballo, F.; Heredia, J.; Elorza, F.J.; Solórzano, J.; Aguilera, H. Hydrochemical and Isotopic Characterization of the Waters of the Manglaralto River Basin (Ecuador) to Contribute to the Management of the Coastal Aquifer. Water 2021, 13, 537. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040537

AMA Style

Carrión-Mero P, Montalván FJ, Morante-Carballo F, Heredia J, Elorza FJ, Solórzano J, Aguilera H. Hydrochemical and Isotopic Characterization of the Waters of the Manglaralto River Basin (Ecuador) to Contribute to the Management of the Coastal Aquifer. Water. 2021; 13(4):537. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040537

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carrión-Mero, Paúl; Montalván, F. J.; Morante-Carballo, Fernando; Heredia, Javier; Elorza, F. J.; Solórzano, Joselyne; Aguilera, Héctor. 2021. "Hydrochemical and Isotopic Characterization of the Waters of the Manglaralto River Basin (Ecuador) to Contribute to the Management of the Coastal Aquifer" Water 13, no. 4: 537. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040537

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