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Electrochemical Treatment of Effluent for the Removal of Contaminants of Emergent Concern and Culturable Microorganisms

CENSE—Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, NOVA School of Science and Technology, NOVA University Lisbon, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
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Academic Editor: Zacharias Frontistis
Water 2021, 13(4), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040520
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 2 February 2021 / Accepted: 13 February 2021 / Published: 17 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
The present work aims to study the electrochemical (EC) process applied for the removal of contaminants of emergent concern (CECs) from wastewater after secondary treatment and the effect of the process on the total culturable microorganisms. The EC experiments were performed in a cylindrical open reactor with 500 mL of effluent, and a fixed current density of 8 mA/cm² was applied through mixed metal oxide electrodes. The experiments were conducted in different sets. In the first round (Set 1), the effluent sample was spiked with three CECs (200 ppb each): caffeine (CAF), carbamazepine (CBZ), and oxybenzone (OXY). For the best treatment period, 6 h, electrodegradation rates ranged from 41 ± 7% for CAF to 95 ± 6% for OXY, with an 87% removal of total culturable microorganisms. In the second round (Set 2), aiming to assess EC process efficiency in a more complex CEC mixture, the effluent was spiked with six more CECs (200 ppb each): diclofenac (DCF), triclosan (TCS), bisphenol A (BPA), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and ibuprofen (IBU), giving a total of nine CECs. In this case, the EC process allowed decreasing the CEC content by 19–100% (below the limit of detection), depending on the effluent samples, and the culturable microorganisms by 99.98% after a 6 h treatment. By contributing to CEC degradation and microorganism removal, the EC process proved to be a viable remediation and disinfection technology for secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmaceuticals and personal care products; total culturable microorganisms; electrochemical disinfection; tertiary treatment pharmaceuticals and personal care products; total culturable microorganisms; electrochemical disinfection; tertiary treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dionísio, J.; Gonçalves, C.; Guedes, P.; Ribeiro, A.B.; Couto, N. Electrochemical Treatment of Effluent for the Removal of Contaminants of Emergent Concern and Culturable Microorganisms. Water 2021, 13, 520. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040520

AMA Style

Dionísio J, Gonçalves C, Guedes P, Ribeiro AB, Couto N. Electrochemical Treatment of Effluent for the Removal of Contaminants of Emergent Concern and Culturable Microorganisms. Water. 2021; 13(4):520. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040520

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dionísio, Joana; Gonçalves, Cristiana; Guedes, Paula; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Couto, Nazaré. 2021. "Electrochemical Treatment of Effluent for the Removal of Contaminants of Emergent Concern and Culturable Microorganisms" Water 13, no. 4: 520. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040520

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