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Open AccessArticle

Analysis of Unsteady Friction Models Used in Engineering Software for Water Hammer Analysis: Implementation Case in WANDA

1
Department of Environmental Engineering and Water Technology, IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands
2
Department of Hydraulics for Infrastructure and Industry, Deltares, Boussinesqweg 1, 2629 HV Delft, The Netherlands
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Regiane Fortes Patella
Water 2021, 13(4), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040495
Received: 13 January 2021 / Revised: 2 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 14 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
Transient events are frequent in water distribution systems. However, until now, most of the applications based on transient analyses are merely theoretical. Additionally, their implementation to real engineering problems is limited due to several physical phenomena accompanying transient waves, which are not accounted for in the classic approach, such as unsteady friction. This study investigates different unsteady friction models’ performance in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and reliability to determine the most-suited engineering practice. As a result of this comparison, Vítkovský’s unsteady friction model was found to be the best fit and was then implemented in WANDA commercial software. The implementation was verified with experimental data based on a reservoir–pipe–valve system. The model proved excellent performance; however, it was noticed that it fell short in simulating plastic pipes, where viscoelastic effects dominate. The upgraded software was then tested on different hydraulic networks with varying pipe materials and configurations. The model provided significant improvement to water hammer simulations with respect to wave shape, damping, and timing. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydraulic transients; hydraulic networks; water hammer; unsteady friction; WANDA hydraulic transients; hydraulic networks; water hammer; unsteady friction; WANDA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abdeldayem, O.M.; Ferràs, D.; van der Zwan, S.; Kennedy, M. Analysis of Unsteady Friction Models Used in Engineering Software for Water Hammer Analysis: Implementation Case in WANDA. Water 2021, 13, 495. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040495

AMA Style

Abdeldayem OM, Ferràs D, van der Zwan S, Kennedy M. Analysis of Unsteady Friction Models Used in Engineering Software for Water Hammer Analysis: Implementation Case in WANDA. Water. 2021; 13(4):495. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040495

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abdeldayem, Omar M.; Ferràs, David; van der Zwan, Sam; Kennedy, Maria. 2021. "Analysis of Unsteady Friction Models Used in Engineering Software for Water Hammer Analysis: Implementation Case in WANDA" Water 13, no. 4: 495. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040495

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