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Water Security in a Changing Environment: Concept, Challenges and Solutions

1
School of Engineering, Pokhara University, Pokhara 33700, Nepal
2
Natural Resources and Ecosystem Services, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Hayama 240-0115, Japan
3
The Fenner School of Environment & Society, Australian National University, Acton, Canberra 2601, Australia
4
Faculty of Sustainability Studies, Hosei University, Tokyo 1-2-8160, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard C. Smardon
Water 2021, 13(4), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040490
Received: 7 January 2021 / Revised: 9 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 14 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Assessments for Urban Water Environment)
Water is of vital and critical importance to ecosystems and human societies. The effects of human activities on land and water are now large and extensive. These reflect physical changes to the environment. Global change such as urbanization, population growth, socioeconomic change, evolving energy needs, and climate change have put unprecedented pressure on water resources systems. It is argued that achieving water security throughout the world is the key to sustainable development. Studies on holistic view with persistently changing dimensions is in its infancy. This study focuses on narrative review work for giving a comprehensive insight on the concept of water security, its evolution with recent environmental changes (e.g., urbanization, socioeconomic, etc.) and various implications. Finally, it presents different sustainable solutions to achieve water security. Broadly, water security evolves from ensuring reliable access of enough safe water for every person (at an affordable price where market mechanisms are involved) to lead a healthy and productive life, including that of future generations. The constraints on water availability and water quality threaten secured access to water resources for different uses. Despite recent progress in developing new strategies, practices and technologies for water resource management, their dissemination and implementation has been limited. A comprehensive sustainable approach to address water security challenges requires connecting social, economic, and environmental systems at multiple scales. This paper captures the persistently changing dimensions and new paradigms of water security providing a holistic view including a wide range of sustainable solutions to address the water challenges. View Full-Text
Keywords: water security; water scarcity; climate change; IWRM; socioeconomic changes; sustainable development water security; water scarcity; climate change; IWRM; socioeconomic changes; sustainable development
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mishra, B.K.; Kumar, P.; Saraswat, C.; Chakraborty, S.; Gautam, A. Water Security in a Changing Environment: Concept, Challenges and Solutions. Water 2021, 13, 490. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040490

AMA Style

Mishra BK, Kumar P, Saraswat C, Chakraborty S, Gautam A. Water Security in a Changing Environment: Concept, Challenges and Solutions. Water. 2021; 13(4):490. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040490

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mishra, Binaya K.; Kumar, Pankaj; Saraswat, Chitresh; Chakraborty, Shamik; Gautam, Arjun. 2021. "Water Security in a Changing Environment: Concept, Challenges and Solutions" Water 13, no. 4: 490. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040490

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