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Open AccessArticle

Hydrogenotrophic Denitrification of Groundwater Using a Simplified Reactor for Drinking Water: A Case Study in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

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Integrated Graduate School of Medicine, Engineering and Agricultural Sciences, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8510, Japan
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Interdisciplinary Research Centre for River Basin Environment, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8510, Japan
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Department of Civil Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, PatanDhokha Road, Lalitpur 44600, Nepal
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Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0016, Japan
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Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8510, Japan
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Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Ramkhamhaeng University, Bangkok 10240, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Micòl Mastrocicco
Water 2021, 13(4), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040444
Received: 8 January 2021 / Revised: 1 February 2021 / Accepted: 3 February 2021 / Published: 8 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
High nitrate-nitrogen (NO3–N) content is a typical feature of groundwater, which is the primary water source in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Considering the Kathmandu Valley’s current problem of water scarcity, a user-friendly system for removing NO3–N from groundwater is promptly desired. In this study, a simplified hydrogenotrophic denitrification (HD) reactor was developed for the Kathmandu Valley, and its effectiveness was evaluated by its ability to treat raw groundwater. The reactor operated for 157 days and showed stability and robustness. It had an average nitrogen removal efficiency of 80.9 ± 16.1%, and its nitrogen loading rate and nitrogen removal rate varied from 23.8 to 92.3 g–N/(m3∙d) and from 18.3 to 73.7 g–N/(m3∙d), respectively. Compared to previous HD reactors, this simplified HD reactor is a more user-friendly option for the Kathmandu Valley, as most of the materials used for the reactor were locally available and require less maintenance. The reactor is recommended for groundwater treatment at the household level. It has a current treatment capacity of 40 L/d, which can fulfill the daily requirements for drinking and cooking water in a household with 4–5 people. View Full-Text
Keywords: NO3–N removal; user-friendly; groundwater treatment; hydrogenotrophic denitrification; drinking water; Kathmandu Valley NO3–N removal; user-friendly; groundwater treatment; hydrogenotrophic denitrification; drinking water; Kathmandu Valley
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shinoda, K.; Maharjan, A.K.; Maharjan, R.; Singhopon, T.; Rujakom, S.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Shakya, B.M.; Kamei, T.; Eamrat, R.; Kazama, F. Hydrogenotrophic Denitrification of Groundwater Using a Simplified Reactor for Drinking Water: A Case Study in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Water 2021, 13, 444. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040444

AMA Style

Shinoda K, Maharjan AK, Maharjan R, Singhopon T, Rujakom S, Tsutsumi Y, Shakya BM, Kamei T, Eamrat R, Kazama F. Hydrogenotrophic Denitrification of Groundwater Using a Simplified Reactor for Drinking Water: A Case Study in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Water. 2021; 13(4):444. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040444

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shinoda, Kenta; Maharjan, Amit K.; Maharjan, Rabin; Singhopon, Tippawan; Rujakom, Suphatchai; Tsutsumi, Yuya; Shakya, Bijay M.; Kamei, Tatsuru; Eamrat, Rawintra; Kazama, Futaba. 2021. "Hydrogenotrophic Denitrification of Groundwater Using a Simplified Reactor for Drinking Water: A Case Study in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal" Water 13, no. 4: 444. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040444

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