Next Article in Journal
Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in Aerosolized Wastewater: Toilet Flushing, Wastewater Treatment, and Sprinkler Irrigation
Next Article in Special Issue
Groundwater Monitoring Systems to Understand Sea Water Intrusion Dynamics in the Mediterranean: The Neretva Valley and the Southern Venice Coastal Aquifers Case Studies
Previous Article in Journal
Use of the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca, Bivalvia) as a Bioindicator of Microplastics Pollution in Freshwater Ecosystems: A Case Study from Lake Iseo (North Italy)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Identification of the Origins of Vadose-Zone Salinity on an Agricultural Site in the Venice Coastland by Ionic Molar Ratio Analysis
Open AccessArticle

Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Study the Effect of Sand Excavation on the Suspended Sediment in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge Region

by 1,2,3, 4,5, 4,6 and 4,6,*
1
School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China
2
Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Zhuhai 519082, China
3
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Coastal Engineering, School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, China
4
State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Ocean Remote Sensing, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
5
Institute of Land Survey and Planning of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 511453, China
6
Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 511458, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alessandro Bergamasco, Hong Quan Nguyen, Gabriella Caruso, Qianguo Xing and Eleonora Carol
Water 2021, 13(4), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040435
Received: 6 December 2020 / Revised: 2 February 2021 / Accepted: 4 February 2021 / Published: 7 February 2021
The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge crosses the Pearl River Estuary and is the largest bridge and tunnel project in the world. During the construction period of this project, the excessive suspended sediment was found in the construction region. The suspended sediment generated by sand excavation in the upstream was assumed to have a significant impact on the suspended sediment in the tunnel region. In this study, we assessed the impact of upstream sand excavation on the suspended sediment in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge construction area using Landsat OLI, ETM+, and TM data. Regional suspended sediment algorithms were developed for Landsat using a symbolic regression method based on data from in situ measurements in the study area from 2003 to 2014. A band shift was conducted on the remote sensing reflectance data from Landsat ETM+ and OLI to produce a time series of the suspended sediment concentrations that was internally consistent with that of the Landsat TM data. The suspended sediment distribution was extracted and used to compare under two different conditions, with and without sand excavation. The correlations of the time series of the suspended sediment concentrations in different regions in the surrounding waters, including the correlations between the construction regions and the sand excavation regions, were calculated. Our results indicated that the sand excavation north of the Pearl River Estuary had a limited impact on the surface suspended sediment concentrations in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge tunnel area. View Full-Text
Keywords: suspended sediment concentration; symbolic regression; Landsat; sand excavation suspended sediment concentration; symbolic regression; Landsat; sand excavation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, F.; Zhang, T.; Ye, H.; Tang, S. Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Study the Effect of Sand Excavation on the Suspended Sediment in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge Region. Water 2021, 13, 435. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040435

AMA Style

Liu F, Zhang T, Ye H, Tang S. Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Study the Effect of Sand Excavation on the Suspended Sediment in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge Region. Water. 2021; 13(4):435. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040435

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Fenfen; Zhang, Tonghui; Ye, Haibin; Tang, Shilin. 2021. "Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Study the Effect of Sand Excavation on the Suspended Sediment in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge Region" Water 13, no. 4: 435. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040435

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop