The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge crosses the Pearl River Estuary and is the largest bridge and tunnel project in the world. During the construction period of this project, the excessive suspended sediment was found in the construction region. The suspended sediment generated by sand excavation in the upstream was assumed to have a significant impact on the suspended sediment in the tunnel region. In this study, we assessed the impact of upstream sand excavation on the suspended sediment in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge construction area using Landsat OLI, ETM+, and TM data. Regional suspended sediment algorithms were developed for Landsat using a symbolic regression method based on data from in situ measurements in the study area from 2003 to 2014. A band shift was conducted on the remote sensing reflectance data from Landsat ETM+ and OLI to produce a time series of the suspended sediment concentrations that was internally consistent with that of the Landsat TM data. The suspended sediment distribution was extracted and used to compare under two different conditions, with and without sand excavation. The correlations of the time series of the suspended sediment concentrations in different regions in the surrounding waters, including the correlations between the construction regions and the sand excavation regions, were calculated. Our results indicated that the sand excavation north of the Pearl River Estuary had a limited impact on the surface suspended sediment concentrations in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge tunnel area.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited