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Open AccessArticle

Emergy Analysis and Ecological Spillover as Tools to Quantify Ecological Compensation in Xuchang City, Qingyi River Basin, China

1
School of Water Conservancy Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
2
Kaifeng Hydrology and Water Resources Survey Bureau, Kaifeng 475000, China
3
Water Resources Department, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hua Zheng
Water 2021, 13(4), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040414
Received: 5 December 2020 / Revised: 26 January 2021 / Accepted: 1 February 2021 / Published: 4 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
As an effective means to coordinate cost–benefit allocation of ecological protection between upstream and downstream cities, ecological compensation is often used to improve collaborative basin-wide freshwater resources management. Yet, due to the complex relationships between upstream and downstream ecosystem services, calculating eco-compensation is not an easy task. We used ecological spillover (the amount of local ecosystem services not used in the region and thus flows to downstream areas) and emergy analysis to determine the amount of eco-compensation that the city of Xuchang should pay to the upstream city of Xinzheng (Qingyi River Basin, China) from 2010 to 2014. Eco-compensation was determined by deducting the emergy of the local, self-supplied ecosystem services of Xuchang City, calculated using an ecological-water-footprint-based analysis, from the emergy of the total ecosystem services used in Xuchang, and monetized accordingly. The results showed that the self-supplied ecosystem services decreased from 2010 to 2014 and, thus, Xuchang relied more on the ecological spillover services flowing from Xinzheng. As a result, eco-compensation increased from 990 million Chinese Yuan (¥) in 2010 to ¥509 billion in 2014, mostly due to increased demands for water purification and reduced precipitation around Xuchang. This method can be further enhanced by introducing larger datasets and can be replicated elsewhere to accurately determine ecological compensation, ensuring basin-wide collaboration towards the sustainable management of freshwater resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: freshwater ecosystem services; ecological compensation; ecological spillover; emery theory; ecological economic system; ecological water footprint; qingyi river Basin freshwater ecosystem services; ecological compensation; ecological spillover; emery theory; ecological economic system; ecological water footprint; qingyi river Basin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, H.; Lv, C.; Ling, M.; Gu, C.; Li, Y.; Wu, Z.; Yan, D. Emergy Analysis and Ecological Spillover as Tools to Quantify Ecological Compensation in Xuchang City, Qingyi River Basin, China. Water 2021, 13, 414. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040414

AMA Style

Li H, Lv C, Ling M, Gu C, Li Y, Wu Z, Yan D. Emergy Analysis and Ecological Spillover as Tools to Quantify Ecological Compensation in Xuchang City, Qingyi River Basin, China. Water. 2021; 13(4):414. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040414

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Huiqin; Lv, Cuimei; Ling, Minhua; Gu, Changkuan; Li, Yang; Wu, Zening; Yan, Denghua. 2021. "Emergy Analysis and Ecological Spillover as Tools to Quantify Ecological Compensation in Xuchang City, Qingyi River Basin, China" Water 13, no. 4: 414. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040414

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