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Open AccessArticle

Clustering Simultaneous Occurrences of the Extreme Floods in the Neckar Catchment

Department of Hydrology and Geohydrology, Institute for Water and Environmental System Modeling—IWS, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
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Academic Editors: Panayiotis Dimitriadis, Ioannis Tsoukalas and Demetris Koutsoyiannis
Water 2021, 13(4), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040399
Received: 27 December 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 1 February 2021 / Published: 4 February 2021
Flood protection is crucial for making socioeconomic policies due to the high losses of extreme floods. So far, the synchronous occurrences of flood events have not been deeply investigated. In this paper, multivariate analysis was implemented to reveal the interconnection between these floods in spatiotemporal resolution. The discharge measurements of 46 gauges with a continuous daily time series for 55 years were taken over the Neckar catchment. Initially, the simultaneous floods were identified. The Kendall correlation between the pair sets of peaks was determined to scrutinize the similarities between the simultaneous events. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering tree (AHCT) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) were employed, and obtained clusters were compared and evaluated with the Silhouette verification method. AHCT shows that the Average and Ward algorithms are appropriate to detect reasonable clusters. The Neckar catchment has been divided into three major clusters: the first cluster mainly covers the western part and is bounded by the Black Forest and Swabian Alps. The second cluster is mostly located in the eastern part of the upper Neckar. The third cluster contains the remaining lowland areas of the Neckar basin. The results illustrate that the clusters act relatively as a function of topography, geology, and anthropogenic alterations of the catchment. View Full-Text
Keywords: clustering analysis; simultaneously occurrences; extreme flood events; vulnerable areas; hierarchical cluster tree; multidimensional scaling clustering analysis; simultaneously occurrences; extreme flood events; vulnerable areas; hierarchical cluster tree; multidimensional scaling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Modiri, E.; Bárdossy, A. Clustering Simultaneous Occurrences of the Extreme Floods in the Neckar Catchment. Water 2021, 13, 399. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040399

AMA Style

Modiri E, Bárdossy A. Clustering Simultaneous Occurrences of the Extreme Floods in the Neckar Catchment. Water. 2021; 13(4):399. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040399

Chicago/Turabian Style

Modiri, Ehsan; Bárdossy, András. 2021. "Clustering Simultaneous Occurrences of the Extreme Floods in the Neckar Catchment" Water 13, no. 4: 399. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040399

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