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Article

Impacts of Irrigation Water on the Hydrodynamics and Saline Behavior of the Shallow Alluvial Aquifer in the Senegal River Delta

1
Geology Department, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar 10700, Senegal
2
Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, Urban and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, University of Liège, 4000 Liège-1, Belgium
3
Department of Environmental Sciences and Management, University of Liège, 6700 Arlon, Belgium
4
Public Service of Wallonia, Department of Environment and Water, Groundwater Direction, 5100 Jambes, Belgium
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2021, 13(3), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030311
Received: 17 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 19 January 2021 / Published: 27 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
The Senegal River Delta located in north-western Senegal is a strategic region for the development of irrigated rice cultivation for achieving rice self-sufficiency. The presence of a shallow salty water table is often considered as a brake to the development of irrigation, by causing salinization of the soil, although the mechanisms of operation are not well known. An experimental study was carried out in a rice paddy located in the village of Ndiaye, 35 km north from Saint Louis, to characterize the water and solute flux processes below the irrigated plots. The objective was to better understand the irrigation-driven dynamics of soil salinization processes. An experimental monitoring network was installed for monitoring the transit of water at the plot level, in the unsaturated zone and in the aquifer. The results show that the supply of water by irrigation contributes to significantly recharging the water table, as shown by the rise in piezometric level, with a concomitant dilution of the water salinity in the soil zone and in the shallow groundwater. However, when irrigation is stopped, the groundwater level and salinity return within a month to their initial level and salinity status because of the evaporative recovery, which strongly governs these processes. Thus, water flow and solute transfers operate in the delta following a recharge–discharge and dilution–concentration cycle controlled by the water balance, and we do not expect to observe in the short- to middle-term any significant reduction in soil salinization processes by drainage. View Full-Text
Keywords: Senegal River Delta; surface water–groundwater interactions; salinity; irrigation; water balance Senegal River Delta; surface water–groundwater interactions; salinity; irrigation; water balance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gning, A.A.; Orban, P.; Malou, R.; Wellens, J.; Derouane, J.; Gueye, M.; Brouyère, S. Impacts of Irrigation Water on the Hydrodynamics and Saline Behavior of the Shallow Alluvial Aquifer in the Senegal River Delta. Water 2021, 13, 311. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030311

AMA Style

Gning AA, Orban P, Malou R, Wellens J, Derouane J, Gueye M, Brouyère S. Impacts of Irrigation Water on the Hydrodynamics and Saline Behavior of the Shallow Alluvial Aquifer in the Senegal River Delta. Water. 2021; 13(3):311. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030311

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gning, Abdoul A., Philippe Orban, Raymond Malou, Joost Wellens, Johan Derouane, Mansour Gueye, and Serge Brouyère. 2021. "Impacts of Irrigation Water on the Hydrodynamics and Saline Behavior of the Shallow Alluvial Aquifer in the Senegal River Delta" Water 13, no. 3: 311. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030311

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