Next Article in Journal
A Biological Method of Treating Surface Water Contaminated with Industrial Waste Leachate
Next Article in Special Issue
Simulation Accuracy of EROSION-3D Model for Estimation of Runoff and Sediment Yield from Micro-Watersheds
Previous Article in Journal
Multiagent System and Rainfall-Runoff Model in Hydrological Problems: A Systematic Literature Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Response Relationship between the Upward or Downward Moving Distance of Main Stream Zone and Water and Sediment Conditions in Wandering Channels
Article

Heavy Metal Removal from the Water of the River Nile Using Riverbank Filtration

1
Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, The British University in Egypt (BUE), Cairo 11435, Egypt
2
Department of Food Nutrition Science, College of Science (Previously Chemistry), Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
3
National Water Research Center, P.O. Box 74, Shubra El-Kheima 13411, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daniel D. Snow
Water 2021, 13(24), 3642; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243642
Received: 30 October 2021 / Revised: 27 November 2021 / Accepted: 14 December 2021 / Published: 17 December 2021
Riverbank filtration (RBF) is considered as a natural treatment process. During this process, a group of chemical, physical, and biological processes occur when water moves through the soil along the bank of the River Nile, which can act as a conventional treatment process. RBF is one of the most effective solutions that the Egyptian government and responsible parties should embrace. Egypt has started to use the RBF technique widely in many sites through the path of the River Nile. This study provides a detailed analysis of the RBF technique; it represents the outlet quality of the water in a study performed on the River Nile. The effect of RBF on water quality can be measured using the software designed for this study. The study’s main aim is to improve the water quality of the River Nile by removing heavy metals from the water by using an effective and fast method of treatment, which is riverbank filtration. The results of the research’s experimental study show the average percentage of metal removal for iron, cobalt, lead, zinc, and copper are 74.04%, 74.44%, 70.72%, 75.1%, and 70.8%, respectively. These results have proved that RBF acts as a substantial barrier versus heavy metals. View Full-Text
Keywords: riverbank filtration; water quality; water quality index; treatment process; weighted arithmetic method riverbank filtration; water quality; water quality index; treatment process; weighted arithmetic method
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hegazy, M.H.; Essam, A.; Elnaggar, A.Y.; E. Hussein, E. Heavy Metal Removal from the Water of the River Nile Using Riverbank Filtration. Water 2021, 13, 3642. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243642

AMA Style

Hegazy MH, Essam A, Elnaggar AY, E. Hussein E. Heavy Metal Removal from the Water of the River Nile Using Riverbank Filtration. Water. 2021; 13(24):3642. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243642

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hegazy, Mohamed H., Ahmed Essam, Ashraf Y. Elnaggar, and Enas E. Hussein. 2021. "Heavy Metal Removal from the Water of the River Nile Using Riverbank Filtration" Water 13, no. 24: 3642. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243642

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop