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Review

Characterization and Treatment Technologies Applied for Produced Water in Qatar

Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, PO Box 2713, Doha 2713, Qatar
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Academic Editors: Martin Wagner and Sonja Bauer
Water 2021, 13(24), 3573; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243573
Received: 7 November 2021 / Revised: 6 December 2021 / Accepted: 10 December 2021 / Published: 13 December 2021
Qatar is one of the major natural gas (NG) producing countries, which has the world’s third-largest NG reserves besides the largest supplier of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Since the produced water (PW) generated in the oil and gas industry is considered as the largest waste stream, cost-effective PW management becomes fundamentally essential. The oil/gas industries in Qatar produce large amounts of PW daily, hence the key challenges facing these industries reducing the volume of PW injected in disposal wells by a level of 50% for ensuring the long-term sustainability of the reservoir. Moreover, it is important to study the characteristics of PW to determine the appropriate method to treat it and then use it for various applications such as irrigation, or dispose of it without harming the environment. This review paper targets to highlight the generation of PW in Qatar, as well as discuss the characteristics of chemical, physical, and biological treatment techniques in detail. These processes and methods discussed are not only applied by Qatari companies, but also by other companies associated or in collaboration with those in Qatar. Finally, case studies from different companies in Qatar and the challenges of treating the PW are discussed. From the different studies analyzed, various techniques as well as sequencing of different techniques were noted to be employed for the effective treatment of PW. View Full-Text
Keywords: produced water treatment; produced water characterization; Qatar produced water treatment; produced water characterization; Qatar
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dawoud, H.D.; Saleem, H.; Alnuaimi, N.A.; Zaidi, S.J. Characterization and Treatment Technologies Applied for Produced Water in Qatar. Water 2021, 13, 3573. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243573

AMA Style

Dawoud HD, Saleem H, Alnuaimi NA, Zaidi SJ. Characterization and Treatment Technologies Applied for Produced Water in Qatar. Water. 2021; 13(24):3573. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243573

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dawoud, Hana D., Haleema Saleem, Nasser A. Alnuaimi, and Syed J. Zaidi. 2021. "Characterization and Treatment Technologies Applied for Produced Water in Qatar" Water 13, no. 24: 3573. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243573

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