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Review

Molecular Methods for Pathogenic Bacteria Detection and Recent Advances in Wastewater Analysis

1
School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2522, Australia
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3010, Australia
3
Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), University of Queensland, Woolloongabba 4102, Australia
4
Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute (IHMRI), University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2522, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alejandro Gonzalez-Martinez
Water 2021, 13(24), 3551; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243551
Received: 15 November 2021 / Revised: 2 December 2021 / Accepted: 9 December 2021 / Published: 12 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogen Detection and Identification in Wastewater)
With increasing concerns about public health and the development of molecular techniques, new detection tools and the combination of existing approaches have increased the abilities of pathogenic bacteria monitoring by exploring new biomarkers, increasing the sensitivity and accuracy of detection, quantification, and analyzing various genes such as functional genes and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG). Molecular methods are gradually emerging as the most popular detection approach for pathogens, in addition to the conventional culture-based plate enumeration methods. The analysis of pathogens in wastewater and the back-estimation of infections in the community, also known as wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), is an emerging methodology and has a great potential to supplement current surveillance systems for the monitoring of infectious diseases and the early warning of outbreaks. However, as a complex matrix, wastewater largely challenges the analytical performance of molecular methods. This review synthesized the literature of typical pathogenic bacteria in wastewater, types of biomarkers, molecular methods for bacterial analysis, and their recent advances in wastewater analysis. The advantages and limitation of these molecular methods were evaluated, and their prospects in WBE were discussed to provide insight for future development. View Full-Text
Keywords: pathogenic bacteria; biomarkers; molecular methods; wastewater-based epidemiology; antimicrobial resistance pathogenic bacteria; biomarkers; molecular methods; wastewater-based epidemiology; antimicrobial resistance
MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, S.; Li, X.; Wu, J.; Coin, L.; O’Brien, J.; Hai, F.; Jiang, G. Molecular Methods for Pathogenic Bacteria Detection and Recent Advances in Wastewater Analysis. Water 2021, 13, 3551. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243551

AMA Style

Zhang S, Li X, Wu J, Coin L, O’Brien J, Hai F, Jiang G. Molecular Methods for Pathogenic Bacteria Detection and Recent Advances in Wastewater Analysis. Water. 2021; 13(24):3551. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243551

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Shuxin, Xuan Li, Jiangping Wu, Lachlan Coin, Jake O’Brien, Faisal Hai, and Guangming Jiang. 2021. "Molecular Methods for Pathogenic Bacteria Detection and Recent Advances in Wastewater Analysis" Water 13, no. 24: 3551. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243551

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