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Article

Responses of Net Anthropogenic N Inputs and Export Fluxes in the Megacity of Chengdu, China

1
College of Architecture & Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
2
Institute of Water Environment, Chengdu Institute of Environmental Protection, Chengdu 610072, China
3
Institute for Environmental Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, 52062 Aachen, Germany
4
Chengdu Environmental Emergency Command and Support Center, Chengdu 610066, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frédéric Frappart
Water 2021, 13(24), 3543; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243543
Received: 5 November 2021 / Revised: 3 December 2021 / Accepted: 7 December 2021 / Published: 11 December 2021
Anthropogenic N inputs have become progressively more problematic and have profoundly affected the water quality in megacities throughout China. Thus, to design and implement appropriate megalopolis watershed management, it is important to understand the relationship between N inputs and exports and to identify the N pollution sources. To that end, in this work, the net anthropogenic N inputs (NANI) in Chengdu City were estimated based on statistical data collected between 1970 and 2019. N input fluxes and pollution sources were estimated through sample collection and field measurements that were performed between 2017 and 2019, while nitrate (NO3) was identified using stable isotope and Bayesian model (SIAR) analysis. The NANI was found to be affected primarily by livestock and poultry consumption of N rich feed. Moreover, the N export fluxes and runoff showed a high degree of correlation. Notably, NO3 fluxes exhibited a significant increase over the course of the study period, such that, by 2019, the total N fluxes (18,883.85 N kg/km2) exceeded the NANI (17,093.87 N kg/km2). The results indicate that although livestock and poultry farming were the original primary sources of NANI, their contributions declined on an annual basis. Moreover, with the emphasis placed on point source management in Chengdu City, domestic sewage discharge has been significantly reduced. Therefore, N retention in groundwater is thought to be the factor driving the N flux increase. These findings are pivotal to solving the N pollution problem in megacities like Chengdu (China). View Full-Text
Keywords: megacity; NANI; N fluxes; N03; stable isotopes megacity; NANI; N fluxes; N03; stable isotopes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ding, Y.; Lai, C.; Shi, Q.; Ouyang, L.; Wang, Z.; Yao, G.; Jia, B. Responses of Net Anthropogenic N Inputs and Export Fluxes in the Megacity of Chengdu, China. Water 2021, 13, 3543. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243543

AMA Style

Ding Y, Lai C, Shi Q, Ouyang L, Wang Z, Yao G, Jia B. Responses of Net Anthropogenic N Inputs and Export Fluxes in the Megacity of Chengdu, China. Water. 2021; 13(24):3543. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243543

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ding, Yao, Chengyue Lai, Qing Shi, Lili Ouyang, Zhaoli Wang, Gang Yao, and Binyang Jia. 2021. "Responses of Net Anthropogenic N Inputs and Export Fluxes in the Megacity of Chengdu, China" Water 13, no. 24: 3543. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243543

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