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Article

Analytical Solutions to Conservative and Non-Conservative Water Quality Constituents in Water Distribution System Storage Tanks

Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
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Academic Editor: Francesco De Paola
Water 2021, 13(24), 3502; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243502
Received: 23 October 2021 / Revised: 1 December 2021 / Accepted: 6 December 2021 / Published: 8 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
Water storage tanks are one of the primary and most critical components of water distribution systems (WDSs), which aim to manage water supply by maintaining pressure. In addition, storage provides a surplus source of water in case of an emergency. To gain the mentioned advantages, storage tanks are incorporated in most WDSs. Despite these advantages, storage can also pose negative impacts on water quality, thereby affecting water utilities. Water quality problems are a result of longer residency times and inadequate water mixing. This study aimed to construct a model of a tank’s water quantity and quality by formulating and solving governing equations based on inlet/outlet configurations and processes that influence the movement of water and chemical substances inside it. We used a compartment model to characterize the mixing behavior inside a tank. A water quality simulation model with different compartment arrangements was explored for extended filling and draining of storage, which was further validated using a previously published case study. View Full-Text
Keywords: distribution storage; water quality; analytical approach; mathematical modeling; conservative material; decaying substance distribution storage; water quality; analytical approach; mathematical modeling; conservative material; decaying substance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abrha, B.; Ostfeld, A. Analytical Solutions to Conservative and Non-Conservative Water Quality Constituents in Water Distribution System Storage Tanks. Water 2021, 13, 3502. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243502

AMA Style

Abrha B, Ostfeld A. Analytical Solutions to Conservative and Non-Conservative Water Quality Constituents in Water Distribution System Storage Tanks. Water. 2021; 13(24):3502. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243502

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abrha, Biniam, and Avi Ostfeld. 2021. "Analytical Solutions to Conservative and Non-Conservative Water Quality Constituents in Water Distribution System Storage Tanks" Water 13, no. 24: 3502. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243502

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