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The Application of a Self-Organizing Model for the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) in Soybean with Different Watering Levels

Georgikon Campus, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, P.O. Box 71, H-8361 Keszthely, Hungary
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Academic Editor: Maria Mimikou
Water 2021, 13(22), 3306; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223306
Received: 27 October 2021 / Revised: 19 November 2021 / Accepted: 20 November 2021 / Published: 22 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water, Agriculture and Aquaculture)
A field experiment was conducted with soybean to observe evapotranspiration (ET) and crop water stress index (CWSI) with three watering levels at Keszthely, Hungary, during the growing seasons 2017–2020. The three different watering levels were rainfed, unlimited, and water stress in flowering. Traditional and converted evapotranspirometers documented water stress levels in two soybean varieties (Sinara, Sigalia), with differing water demands. ET totals with no significant differences between varieties varied from 291.9 to 694.9 mm in dry, and from 205.5 to 615.6 mm in wet seasons. Theoretical CWSI, CWSIt was computed using the method of Jackson. One of the seasons, the wet 2020 had to be excluded from the CWSIt analysis because of uncertain canopy temperature, Tc data. Seasonal mean CWSIt and Tc were inversely related to water use efficiency. An unsupervised Kohonen self-organizing map (K-SOM) was developed to predict the CWSI, CWSIp based on easily accessible meteorological variables and Tc. In the prediction, the CWSIp of three watering levels and two varieties covered a wide range of index values. The results suggest that CWSIp modelling with the minimum amount of input data provided opportunity for reliable CWSIp predictions in every water treatment (R2 = 0.935–0.953; RMSE = 0.033–0.068 mm, MAE = 0.026–0.158, NSE = 0.336–0.901, SI = 0.095–0.182) that could be useful in water stress management of soybean. However, highly variable weather conditions in the mild continental climate of Hungary might limit the potential of CWSI application. The results in the study suggest that a less than 450 mm seasonal precipitation caused yield reduction. Therefore, a 100–160 mm additional water use could be recommended during the dry growing seasons of the country. The 150 year-long local meteorological data indicated that 6 growing seasons out of 10 are short of precipitation in rainfed soybean. View Full-Text
Keywords: CWSI; evapotranspiration; K-SOM analysis; WUE; soybean; water stress CWSI; evapotranspiration; K-SOM analysis; WUE; soybean; water stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Anda, A.; Simon-Gáspár, B.; Soós, G. The Application of a Self-Organizing Model for the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) in Soybean with Different Watering Levels. Water 2021, 13, 3306. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223306

AMA Style

Anda A, Simon-Gáspár B, Soós G. The Application of a Self-Organizing Model for the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) in Soybean with Different Watering Levels. Water. 2021; 13(22):3306. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223306

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anda, Angela, Brigitta Simon-Gáspár, and Gábor Soós. 2021. "The Application of a Self-Organizing Model for the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) in Soybean with Different Watering Levels" Water 13, no. 22: 3306. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223306

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