Next Article in Journal
Groundwater Depletion in an Urban Environment under Semiarid Climate and Persistent Drought–City of Marrakesh (Morocco)
Next Article in Special Issue
Assessing the first MSFD Implementation Cycle in Greece under Biodiversity and Contaminants Descriptors
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Stepwise Adjustment of C/N during the Start-Up of Submerged Membrane Bioreactors (SMBRs) on the Aerobic Denitrification of Wastewater
Previous Article in Special Issue
Assessment of the Coastal Vulnerability to the Ongoing Sea Level Rise for the Exquisite Rhodes Island (SE Aegean Sea, Greece)
Article

Late Holocene Hydro-Climate Variability in the Eastern Mediterranean: A Spatial Multi-Proxy Approach

Department of Geology, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Serafeim E. Poulos, Vasilios Kapsimalis and Ioannis P. Panagiotopoulos
Water 2021, 13(22), 3252; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223252
Received: 28 September 2021 / Revised: 11 November 2021 / Accepted: 14 November 2021 / Published: 17 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal and Continental Shelf Dynamics in a Changing Climate)
A total of thirteen (13) paleoclimatic coastal and hinterland archives of the broader eastern Mediterranean region were collected and examined statistically in search of underlying trends for the period 2800 to 200 BP. For each archive, a proxy record representative of hydro-climatic changes was selected, normalized using z-factors to facilitate intercomparison, and analyzed statistically. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed using a clustering analysis (HCA) and dimension reduction (PCA), which led to groupings of similar records temporally, and allowed the identification of spatially underlying modes of variability. Two main modes of variability were identified, further supporting complex trajectories of paleoclimatic evolution in the region. The first mode was identified for sites presenting a trend from a wetter to an overall drier phase, with respective changes at major phase shifts at 1400 BP and 1100 BP. All sites were from the southern and northern Balkan region, as well as southwestern Turkey. A contrasting dry to wet trend was identified for a site in the Peloponnese (Greece) and the Levant, with a major phase shift at around 750 BP. The inclusion of different proxies from very different environmental settings and the 200-year window has complicated the connection of established short-term climatic events to the study’s findings. View Full-Text
Keywords: z-scores; coastal records; lake records; proxy synthesis; paleoclimate z-scores; coastal records; lake records; proxy synthesis; paleoclimate
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bassukas, D.; Emmanouilidis, A.; Avramidis, P. Late Holocene Hydro-Climate Variability in the Eastern Mediterranean: A Spatial Multi-Proxy Approach. Water 2021, 13, 3252. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223252

AMA Style

Bassukas D, Emmanouilidis A, Avramidis P. Late Holocene Hydro-Climate Variability in the Eastern Mediterranean: A Spatial Multi-Proxy Approach. Water. 2021; 13(22):3252. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223252

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bassukas, Dimitrios, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, and Pavlos Avramidis. 2021. "Late Holocene Hydro-Climate Variability in the Eastern Mediterranean: A Spatial Multi-Proxy Approach" Water 13, no. 22: 3252. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223252

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop